How are Java and C ++ related

From C ++ to Java to Python: Which programming languages ​​will be important in 2021?

What are the hottest and most sought-after programming languages? Which ones should you learn and master when working as a developer? We answer these frequently asked questions.

What is meant by “programming language”?

Simple, higher, program-oriented, imperative, graphic, esoteric or declarative programming language. Machine language, assembly language, scripting language, mini languages, markup languages, database languages, or stylesheet languages. The most diverse types, forms and definitions prevail, which are combined under the collective term “programming language”.

The different programming languages ​​have one thing in common that they are used by developers to communicate with “machines”. For example with computers, mainframes, smartphones, smart home devices or Internet of Things components. Numerous programming languages ​​have emerged over the past few decades, and new ones are constantly being added: Fortran and Cobol are from the 1950s, Python from the 1990s and Kotlin was released as a stable version in 2016.
 

The currently most popular programming languages

What used to be popular in programming language can be outdated today and out of date tomorrow. As in fashion or music, there are trends that bring some languages ​​up, others crash.

There are various surveys to make these trends tangible. For example from the well-known developer community StackOverflow. 65,000 developers were surveyed for the “2020 Developer Survey”. In their opinion, these are the programming languages ​​with which they currently prefer to develop:

  1. Rust
  2. TypeScript
  3. python
  4. Kotlin
  5. Go
  6. Julia
  7. Darts
  8. C #
  9. Swift
  10. JavaScript

Are you a bit surprised by the result? For example, because there are some exotic languages ​​here and known ones are missing? The answer is: In this evaluation, the focus was on the “loved languages”. In other words, in the programming languages ​​with which the participants currently prefer to program.
 

Which programming languages ​​are important?

The StackOverflow analysis turns out very different when you look at the languages ​​that are considered “wanted” in the global community. The result of the top 10 is then:

  1. python
  2. JavaScript
  3. Go
  4. TypeScript
  5. Rust
  6. Kotlin
  7. Java
  8. C ++
  9. SQL
  10. C #

Note: The complete, exact StackOverflow evaluation is available on this side.
 

How are other evaluations?

Do Python and Rust Really Matter? What do developers think outside of the StackOverflow community? Which programming languages ​​do you think are the most popular? The “Popularity of Programming Language Index” the PYPL page shows a different mood. In the evaluation from August 2020, these languages ​​are at the top:

  1. python
  2. Java
  3. JavaScript
  4. C #
  5. C / C ++
  6. PHP
  7. R.
  8. Objective-C
  9. Swift
  10. TypeScript

Python dominates here, too, but Rust, Kotlin or Go, for example, do not appear in the top positions.

It looks similar with TIOBE index out:

  1. C.
  2. Java
  3. python
  4. C ++
  5. C #
  6. Visual Basic
  7. JavaScript
  8. R.
  9. PHP
  10. SQL
     

Popular and unpopular: programming languages ​​through the ages

The studies mentioned are all snapshots. The following video shows how the popularity of programming languages ​​can change dramatically over the course of several years:

As you can see, Java was the undisputed first place in the PYPL index in 2004, while Visual Basic, Perl and Delphi romped about in the following places in the top 10. 16 years later, Python is in the leading position, Java is well behind in second place.

Visual Basic, Perl and Delphi were thrown out of the leaderboard. They are also among the world's most unpopular programming languages, according to the latest StackOverflow survey.
 

Popular programming languages: How do the changes come about?

Many changes have to do with technological change. The first programming languages ​​were invented to specifically address certain things in the machines of their time. The hardware performance was extremely limited back then, sometimes every bit and byte really mattered.

The IT world has changed rapidly in recent years. For example, the Internet prevailed in the broad masses, the bandwidths increased massively, the memory sizes grew exponentially. New technologies such as smartphones, wearables and the Internet of Things emerged. 5G is already here, the first smart factories with AI-controlled robots are in place. And there is rapid progress in the area of ​​quantum computers and autonomous driving.

Programming languages ​​are used to address machines of all kinds and to teach them fantastic things. Not every simple, program-oriented, imperative, graphic, script-based or declarative language is suitable for this.
 

Which programming language should you learn?

This question can not be answered generally. On the one hand, it depends on your level of knowledge and your skills. One has Visual Basic, JavaScript and Python as an entry point, the other Java, C ++ and C #.

When learning a programming language, the first thing you should always ask yourself is: what is the goal? What should be programmed with it?

Would you like to develop an app, a computer game or just experiment with your Raspberry Pi? Is it your goal to help develop future-oriented technologies? Or would you like to work in a niche, for example to keep old mainframes and satellites alive? You could just imagine to work as a CRM developerbecause you are interested in customer relationship management?

Set goals for yourself! Find out which programming language (s) you need to master. As SAP consultant and developer for example, you should know ABAP, as an e-commerce developer score with PHP and JavaScript.

Are you still undecided? Then orient yourself to the current market requirements, for example by using our Scour job advertisements for IT jobs. Here you can see what companies from Germany, Switzerland and Austria are currently looking for.
 

Learning Programming Languages: How Many Are Useful?

Here, too, there is no generally applicable statement. On the one hand, it can make sense to be the ultimate programming language expert if that's exactly what companies are looking for. The other hand are nowadays T-shaped skills asked, which means: You are a generalist with one, two or more specialties.

One possibility is to learn a programming language and to “shimmy” from there. Because many are related to each other.
 


There are also some frameworks and tools that make it easier for you to broaden your horizons. For example, React.js, Vue.js, and Angular are very popular for web development, according to the StackOverflow community. Do you want to as a passionate gamer If you work in the computer game industry, Unity 3D and the Unreal Engine are ideal.

What you learn is also to a large extent related to your background. If you are learning a profession such as an IT specialist for application development or studying computer science at a university, you will come into contact with the programming languages ​​that are given to you. If these are not enough for you, you should look at other languages ​​and frameworks in your free time. Or learn this through special training courses.
 

Careers: Which programming language is the best?

Again, what is your goal? In which industry do you want to work? In a small company or in a large corporation? What are you developing? Where do you want to go in the long term? Are you interested in going abroad or should your job be in your home country? All of these factors influence the determination of which programming language is best for your career.

If you have mastered a popular programming language such as Java, JavaScript, C #, C ++, Python or PHP, you have a very good chance of finding a new job quickly. This is usually rewarded attractively. Depending on your level of knowledge, professional experience, location and company size, you will receive an average gross salary of 40,000 to 75,000 euros per year in Germany. If you go abroad, for example to the USA, you can expect significantly higher salaries in some cases.

Images: Adobe Stock, Programmierenlernen.eu