How close is Lumosity to shutdown?
The LHC is taking a break
View into the accelerator tunnel. If you could look into the magnets, they would look like the image on the right: CERN
Now is the end of collisions: Since Sunday, December 2nd, there have been no more particle beams circling in the Large Hadron Collider LHC, the particle accelerator flagship at CERN in Geneva. He is going into a two-year break in operation, during which many components on the accelerator, the rest of the accelerator complex and the particle detectors are serviced, replaced and improved. Then it should run with even more particle collisions and slightly higher energy.
The break in operation - also known as Long Shutdown 2 or LS2 - follows three years in which the LHC far exceeded the expectations of the physicists and supplied them with around 16 million billion proton-proton collisions with a collision energy of 13 TeV. In addition to the upgrade work, the scientists will have enough data to evaluate for the next two years. The amount of data amounts to more than 300 petabytes (300 million gigabytes), which are now permanently archived in the data center of the. Converted into videos, this would mean that at a transmission speed of 10 Mb / s you could stream videos around the clock for a good 950 years ...
"In the second run of the LHC we went far beyond our goals and were able to deliver five times more data than in the first run with the record energy of 13 TeV," says Frédérick Bordry, CERN's director for accelerators and technology. The large amount of data also ensured that the scientists learned more about the Higgs particle and the Standard Model of particle physics. "That is very important, because the Higgs is a very special and unique particle that accompanies us in our search for new physics," adds Fabiola Gianotti, CERN General Director.
During the two-year break, the entire accelerator complex and detectors will be strengthened and upgraded for the next LHC term and the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, which will begin data collection after 2025.
Several components of the accelerator chain (injectors) that supply the LHC with protons are renewed to create more intense beams. Among other things, the new linear accelerator Linac4, the first link in the accelerator chain, is being launched. The new linear accelerator accelerates hydrogen ions, which are later reduced to protons. The second accelerator in the chain, the Proton Synchrotron Booster, will be equipped with a completely new injection and acceleration system and the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), the last accelerator before the LHC, will be upgraded to accelerate higher beam intensities later. In the LHC itself, for example, more than 20 superconducting accelerator magnets will be replaced.
All LHC experiments will upgrade important parts of their detectors over the next two years. For example, almost the entire LHCb experiment is being replaced by faster detector components. ALICE will also improve the technology of its tracking detectors for the readout speed, among other things. ATLAS and CMS are improving and are starting to prepare for the upgrade of the large experiments for HL-LHC.
In the spring of 2021, the LHC should continue again.
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