What is the purpose of crown molding

Tree shapes on the upper tree line

Buds, needles and shoots often fall victim to the harsh environmental conditions at the tree line. It often happens that early or late frosts or extreme temperature jumps kill the new shoots and needles. Furthermore, strong and long-lasting winds often dry out the new shoots, the needles or entire parts of the crown, especially when the ground is frozen and the water cannot be replaced (frost dryness). In extremely wind-exposed locations, buds, needles and bark are abraded by drift snow. Strong sunlight over the snowpack causes similar damage. Finally, the buds and shoots of hoofed game or grouse are often cut off. Parasitic fungi also often kill the branches close to the ground that are covered with snow in winter.

The trees in the crown and root area react very clearly to the loss of the buds at the shoot tips, where the growth substances are mainly formed. So far dormant (dormant) buds on the uninjured branches and trunk suddenly become active, or new buds (adventitious buds) are created and sprout, not only on the side, but also on the top and bottom of the branches. This can lead to very fine and dense branching. Since the annual shoots are also very short, the needles concentrate on a very dense needle coat on the crown surface. Often only the branches close to the ground are greatly elongated, lie on the ground and are rooted. It is not uncommon for such elongated branches that come into contact with the ground and with roots to create new trunks, as the tips of the branches stand up.