How is the TCS Ahmedabad training center

Concepts and Effects of the Transfer of Dual Vocational Training [PDF]

DownloadEmbed
This document was uploaded by our user. The uploader already confirmed that they had the permission to publish it. If you are author / publisher or own the copyright of these documents, please report to us by using this DMCA report form. Report DMCA

E-Book Overview

The anthology brings together the various facets of transfer research in international comparative vocational training research. Findings from projects and country-based studies are discussed as well as theoretical and pragmatic approaches are presented. The work thus offers a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge and also takes up historical developments and interdisciplinary approaches.


E-book content

International vocational training research

Michael Gessler · Martina Fuchs Matthias Pilz Ed.

Concepts and effects of the transfer of dual vocational training

International vocational training research series published by Dietmar Frommberger, Osnabrück, Germany Michael Gessler, Bremen, Germany Matthias Pilz, Cologne, Germany

The 'International Vocational Training Research' series offers a place of publication for publications by scientists in the fields of vocational training research, comparative educational sciences, sociology, political science and economics. The editors represent a broad focus that understands vocational education as a phenomenon that spans cultures, phases of life, domains and institutions. The common intersection as well as the challenge lies in the clarification of the interactions between work, education and society. Corresponding to this orientation, the thematic potential encompasses the spectrum from micro-research (e.g. teaching research) to macro-research (e.g. education transfer) and from highly formalized and institutionalized educational offers (e.g. school-based vocational training) to informal, work-related educational offers (e.g. learning in the work process). The series' monographs and anthologies are published in German or English. Philip Gonon Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Thomas Schröder University of Zurich, Switzerland Technical University of Dortmund, Germany Dr. Jim Hordern Bath Spa University, England Prof. Dr. Zhiqun Zhao Beijing Normal University Beijing, Prof. Dr. Sabine Pfeiffer China Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany

Further volumes in the series http://www.springer.com/series/15816

Michael Gessler Martina Fuchs Matthias Pilz (Ed.)

Concepts and effects of the transfer of dual vocational training With a foreword by Prof. Dr. Dietmar Frommberger

Editor Michael Gessler Bremen, Germany

Matthias Pilz Cologne, Germany

Martina Fuchs Cologne, Germany

Internationale Berufsbildungsforschung ISBN 978-3-658-23185-9 (eBook) ISBN 978-3-658-23184-2 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-23185-9 The German National Library lists this publication in the German National Bibliography; detailed bibliographic data are available on the Internet at http://dnb.d-nb.de. Springer VS © Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, a part of Springer Nature 2019 The work including all of its parts is protected by copyright. Any use that is not expressly permitted by copyright law requires the prior consent of the publisher. This applies in particular to copying, editing, translation, microfilming and saving and processing in electronic systems. The reproduction of common names, trade names, trade names, etc. in this work, even without special identification, does not justify the assumption that such names are to be regarded as free within the meaning of the trademark and trademark protection legislation and can therefore be used by everyone. The publisher, the authors and the editors assume that the details and information in this work are complete and correct at the time of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors nor the editors accept any liability, expressly or implicitly, for the content of the work, for any errors or statements. The publisher remains neutral with regard to geographical assignments and territorial designations in published maps and institutional addresses. Springer VS is an imprint of the registered company Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH and is part of Springer Nature. The address of the company is: Abraham-Lincoln-Str. 46, 65189 Wiesbaden, Germany

Preface The importance of vocational training is growing worldwide. Their important role for the integration of young adults in work and society, for the prevention of youth unemployment and for the development of skilled workers is increasingly recognized. Wherever vocational training is developed, it represents an important alternative to further general and university education. Also in supranational organizations - such as the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the European Union (EU), the International Labor Organization (ILO), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the World Bank etc. - vocational training is gaining in importance for the development of educational, social and economic strategies. Approaches to vocational training, in which school and work-related learning and experience processes as well as different learning locations (including training companies) are combined, are of particular interest in this context. This increase in importance is associated with a high need for expertise in the field of vocational training and for the further development of vocational training structures. In contrast to general and higher education, there is relatively little knowledge of the very different forms and approaches of vocational education. In addition, the spectrum of vocational training is extremely diverse. And vocational training research is organized very differently around the world and in many countries can only be found in rudimentary form or sporadically in various specialist disciplines. This series is intended to make a continuous contribution to the development of internationally oriented vocational training research.

vi

Foreword

to build. The results of scientific research aimed at the issues of vocational education and training will be presented worldwide. This includes country studies, questions on specific vocational training topics in different national contexts, international comparative contributions to system development and training cultures etc. In this context, relevant research papers (dissertations, habilitation theses, high-quality research reports) have emerged in recent years. However, there is currently a lack of a suitable and externally clearly visible series of publications that can take up these excellent research findings in a distinctive and structured manner and thus depict them for an interested specialist audience. The three editors have long been active in the field of international vocational training research. In addition, there are the designated advisory board members. On this basis, a selection of important results from international comparative vocational training research is made, which are made available to the specialist audience in this series. 2VQDEU FN, June 2018 Dietmar Frommberger

Table of contents Foreword ................................................ .................................................. . v

Introduction ................................................. ................................................ 1 Michael Gessler, Martina Fuchs, Matthias Pilz The international transfer of vocational training in the light of German vocational training research: Like the spirit from the bottle ............................ .................................................. ......................... 3 Part I Status and history of transfer research ................. ............. 11 Kristina Wiemann, Junmin Li, Judith Wiemann, Martina Fuchs, Matthias Pilz 'Lost (in) VET': On the status of transfer research in international vocational training cooperation from the perspective of various scientific disciplines .. ............................................... 13 Werner Heitmann 60 years of international promotion of vocational training at a glance: Change processes in the value chain for vocational training in German state vocational training cooperation abroad ............................ ............. .. 59 Part II Global Studies on Transfer .......................................... ......... 119 Reinhard Stockmann Goals, effects and success factors of German vocational training cooperation .............................. ......................................... 121

viii

Table of Contents

Thorsten Posselt, Nizar Abdelkafi, Marija Radić, Anzhela Preissler Vocational Training Export: Central Components of Business Model Development ................................. .................................................. ........ 163 Philipp Grollmann, Sara-Julia Blöchle, Anika Jansen Dual training as an operational strategy for securing skilled workers in vehicle service: case studies on motivation and organization in international comparison ........... ......................... 197 Part III Analysis of transfers at company level ................. 229 Michael Gessler Promoters of Innovation in Transnational Vocational Training Transfer: A Case Study ...................................... .................................. 231 Martin Krzywdzinski, Ulrich Jürgens Transfer of German and Japanese approaches to skilled worker training to the BRIC -Locations: Volkswagen and Toyota in comparison .......................................... .................................................. ... 281 Susanne Peters Company transfer of vocational training: case study South Africa ......................................... .................................................. .... 321 Judith Wiemann, Kristina Wiemann, Matthias Pilz, Martina Fuchs Dual training abroad: a 'home game'? For the qualification of production employees in German companies in China, India and Mexico ..................................... ..... 359

Table of Contents

ix

Jöran Wrana, Javier Revilla Diez Novel cooperation models between private Vietnamese companies and local educational institutions: An exploratory study on the forms of cooperation and the importance of proximity dimensions in the development of new types of cooperation models .............. ............................................. 393 Part IV Analysis of Development cooperation projects ...... 435 Thomas Schröder Regional Association for Vocational and Technical Education in Asia (RAVTE): A regional structure for the dissemination of VET approaches and VET research as a contribution to development in the ASEAN region ........... ............................. 437 Enrique Angles, Hans-Jürgen Lindemann Professionalization of dual vocational training in Peru ....... ............ 463 Johannes Strittmatter, Markus M. Böhner Successfully shaping German vocational training in partner countries: A practice-oriented approach for bilateral transfer processes ............... 515 Part V Analysis of transfers from a cultural and historical perspective ........................................ .................................................. 549 Stefan Wolf Theoretical frameworks and historical experiences of industrialization for an exchange with developing countries for the further development of professional qualifications .............................. . 551 Junmin Li Learning from Transfer: Potential of Policy Transfer for the Further Development of Policy in the Donor Country Using the Example of the Peer Review Process ...................... ................................................. 601 List of authors ................................................. ............................... 631

introduction

The international transfer of vocational training in the light of German vocational training research: Like the spirit out of the bottle Michael Gessler1, Martina Fuchs2 and Matthias Pilz3 What does the international transfer of vocational training have in common with a 'spirit out of the bottle'? The reader may suspect an error or at least a misunderstanding in the context of a scientific publication. The irritation that may thus be generated is, however, quite desirable and can be cleared up by the following explanations. In our opinion, the allegory from the world of fairy tales fits well to reflect the past and present discussions on the international transfer of vocational training in Germany. This can be seen in two striking aspects (in particular the first two articles in this volume in detail): On the one hand, it is noticeable that the discussion about the transfer of vocational training has been intensively conducted again for many years, both on the political and on the scientific level . At the same time, however, it can also be stated that the topic disappears from the discourse for years in some cases, only to suddenly reappear with high priority. Much like the genie from the bottle, due to certain

1

Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Michael Gessler, Institute for Technology and Education, University of Bremen, email: [email protected] 2 Prof. Dr. Martina Fuchs, Economic and Social Geography Institute, University of Cologne, E-Mail: [email protected] 3 Prof. Dr. Matthias Pilz, Chair for Economic and Social Education, University of Cologne, E-Mail: [email protected] © Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, part of Springer Nature 2019 M. Gessler et al. (Ed.), Concepts and Effects of the Transfer of Dual Vocational Training, International Vocational Training Research, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-23185-9_1

4

Gessler, fox, mushroom

Stimuli or actions escapes from the bottle and disappears again in the opposite case. On the other hand, the discussion of the international transfer of vocational training in Germany is only slightly structured and the definition is not uniform. The nebulous educational and scientific discourse is often characterized by assumptions, rumors, trap doors and not infrequently also 'dead ends'. At the same time, it is entwined with myths, which manifest themselves in fears and fears as well as wishes and expectations. The image of the spirit in the bottle can now be further differentiated by taking a closer look at the various actors in the discourse. On the one hand, there is vocational training policy. German vocational training and, in particular, dual training were promoted both as an instrument of development cooperation and as a vehicle for economic and foreign policy. German vocational training was repeatedly advertised to other countries under slogans such as 'Vocational training quality made in Germany' or 'Export hit dual system'. This approach in turn intends two different perspectives. One perspective concerns the German supplier side. A normative change has been observed here over the last few decades, ranging from 'vocational training export' (in the sense of a full transfer of the German dual system) through a moderate transfer approach to 'vocational training cooperation'. The other side focuses on the recipient or cooperation countries. These are attracted by advertising and, to a large extent, ask for support in the implementation of dual structures, which, however, cannot always and fully be provided by the German side for reasons of capacity. To stay in the picture: 'Those whom I called, the ghosts, I can't get rid of'.

International transfer of vocational training

5

Another perspective of the recipient countries is relevant here. In these, the slogans exemplified above often arouse expectations and hopes which, given the country-specific circumstances and the complexity of the training system, cannot always be met in the short term. Consequently, disappointments and failures are inevitable. As a consequence, the political discourse is often 'backtracked'. Against this background, in order to stay in the picture, education policy forces 'the spirit back into the bottle as quickly as possible'. This situation is one of the reasons why the topic of vocational training transfer has experienced such violent ups and downs in the German debate in recent years. On the other hand, you have to go back to the research side as an actor. Here, too, aspects such as the normative foundation or the definitional classification are so far not very specific and more of a 'ghostly nature'. It is also noticeable that conceptual approaches or pragmatic individual cases dominate over empirical findings in the research landscape. Furthermore, it is surprising that, on the one hand, research findings from various scientific disciplines have only rarely been included or received integratively so far. On the other hand, it is not uncommon for the completely different approaches in the context of development cooperation as opposed to private-sector activities to be generalized. Here, too, a nebulous than a clearly delimited perspective can consequently be established. This anthology has dealt with this situation, which is certainly somewhat exaggerated in parts.The volume was created in the aftermath of the workshop 'Learning from abroad? Vocational training abroad and internationalization of vocational training ‘at the University Days Vocational Training 2017‘ at the University of Cologne. The anthology is thus in a good tradition. Because as early as the 1980s and 1990s, the topic was discussed intensively at the university days of that time (article by Heitmann in this volume).

6

Gessler, fox, mushroom

The aim of the workshop was to get a multidisciplinary overview of the status and perspectives of research and development work in Germany. Particular emphasis was placed on the fact that both state-controlled development cooperation and private sector engagement were taken into account as research objects. In addition, it was important to the organizers that in addition to theoretical and conceptual approaches, empirical findings in particular were presented. Without wanting to refer to the individual articles that emerged from the workshop as well as the additionally enriched contributions at this point, it can be stated that when various research disciplines are taken into account, there is a considerable level of knowledge regarding the topic. At the same time, the articles refer to a large number of research desiderata that will have to be dealt with in the future. Since the large number of 15 contributions provides a differentiated picture and some articles also explicitly deal with the consequences of the findings of international transfer research in the field of vocational training, these contributions should stand on their own and not be received again in a final chapter. As a result, the reader has the following structure of the book: The first two essays are devoted to the state of research and historical development. K. Wiemann et al. show the findings and findings from the various relevant research disciplines in an overview article. In the following, Heitmann spans a historical arc of developments and findings from the perspective of development cooperation.

International transfer of vocational training

7

Articles 3-5 deal with global studies across several countries. Stockmann is presenting a meta-study on the evaluation of vocational training projects in the context of development cooperation. Posselt et al. follow up with an analysis of projects of the state-supported initiative 'Vocational training export by German providers'. Finally, Grollmann et al. Results from Spain, Italy and Korea of ​​the research project of the Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB) 'Dual training as a company strategy for securing skilled workers'. The essays 6-10 are devoted to the analysis of training activities of German companies abroad. In his contribution, Gessler examines the importance of promoters in setting up dual training structures using the case study of a German automobile manufacturer in the USA, while Krzywdzinski and Jürgens subsequently analyze the training behavior of German companies in the BRIC countries. This is followed by a contribution by Peters to the training in the South African subsidiary of a German automobile manufacturer. J. Wiemann et al. in turn examine the activities of various German companies in Mexico, India and China, followed by Wrana and Diez, who compare such activities by German and Japanese companies in Vietnam. The following articles 11-13 report on vocational training cooperation in the context of German development cooperation. Schröder presents the 'Regional Association for Vocational and Technical Education in Asia (RAVTE)' in Southeast Asia. Angles and Lindemann deal with the long-term developments in vocational training cooperation in Peru. Based on many years of experience in development cooperation, Strittmatter and Böhner are developing an analysis matrix for vocational training cooperation and thus preparing the transition to the general analysis of transfer options. The final contributions 14-15 provide general analyzes of the transfer possibilities of vocational training activities to other countries. wolf

8

Gessler, fox, mushroom

does this by referring back to the long-term historical development of vocational training in Germany, while Li critically questions models of 'policy learning' using the example of quality development. With the start of the 'Education for All' (WCEFA 1990) program by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and once again with the 'Millennium Development Goals' (UN 2000), vocational education was outside of international interest and of scientific discourse. The world economic crisis of 2007/2008 changed the situation abruptly. International programs and studies are now called, among others, 'Learning for Jobs' (OECD 2010),' Youth and Skills: Putting education to work '(UNESCO 2012),' Skills Beyond Schools' (OECD 2014) or 'Engaging Employers in Apprenticeship Opportunities: Making It Happen Locally '(OECD and ILO 2017). This attention has triggered national development spurts and initiated legal reforms: The state is again involved in vocational training, e.g. with the establishment of regional vocational training centers (e.g. Chile) or the establishment of specialized authorities (e.g. Botswana and Kenya); dual training models are implemented locally (e.g. Slovakia, Uruguay, Namibia and Nigeria) or developed and tested with national validity (e.g. Malaysia, Mexico, Paraguay and Spain); The dual training is legally anchored as a standard model of vocational training in the secondary level (e.g. Serbia and Kazakhstan) and established dual models are legally opened for all educational institutions (e.g. Peru). All approaches face the challenge of expanding the vocational training system and at the same time establishing high-quality standards in order to counteract the generally prevailing negative image of society. Many countries are supported by German institutions and programs, including the German Society for International Cooperation (GIZ), the Sequa, the BIBB / the German Office for international Cooperation in Vocational Education and Training (GOVET),

International transfer of vocational training

9

the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) / International Vocational Training, KfW, the Chambers of Commerce Abroad (AHK), the German Chamber of Commerce and Industry (DIHK), the Central Association of German Crafts (ZDH), the Federal Association of German Industry (BDI) and supported by the German Trade Union Confederation (DGB). On the other hand, dilemmas are a constitutive element of the developments mentioned, which increases the need for systematic research and reflection. However, there is usually a lack of adequate local capacities or structures. However, the first positive developments can also be observed here: For example, a data report on the status of national vocational training was published for the first time in 2016 in Colombia with the support of BIBB. The developments show that it is worthwhile to look again at the topic of international vocational training research impartially, but not uncritically. Finally, we would like to thank Jana Hütten, John Kox, Janine Tögel and Janine Wehrli and especially Christian Hofmeister for the very successful formatting of the articles in this volume.

Literature OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development). (2010). Learning for jobs: OECD reviews of vocational education and training. Paris: OECD. OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development). (2014). Skills beyond school: Synthesis report. Paris: OECD.

10

Gessler, fox, mushroom

OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development), & ILO (International Labor Organization). (2017). Engaging employers in apprenticeship opportunities: Making it happen locally. Paris: OECD. UN (United Nations). (2000). United Nations millennium declaration: Resolution adopted by the General Assembly, September 18. New York: UN. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization). (2012). Youth and skills: putting education to work. Paris: UNESCO. WCEFA (World Conference on Education for All). (1990). World Conference on education for all: Meeting basic learning needs (Published by UNDO, UNESCO, UNICEF, and World Bank). New York: UNICEF.

Part I Status and history of transfer research

'Lost (in) VET': On the status of transfer research in international vocational training cooperation from the perspective of various scientific disciplines Kristina Wiemann1, Junmin Li2, Judith Wiemann3, Martina Fuchs4 and Matthias Pilz5

Summary The question of the transferability of vocational system approaches is a central question in international comparative vocational training research. However, neighboring scientific disciplines also refer to aspects of international vocational training cooperation. This article outlines relevant findings in comparative political science, comparative educational science, economic geography and vocational training research and discusses differences and parallels. Different focus points emerge: Comparative politics and education focus primarily on transfer activities at the systemic level, while economic geography includes local and regional activities in particular. Vocational training research focuses on 1

Kristina Wiemann M. Ed., Chair for Economic and Social Pedagogy, University of Cologne, E-Mail: [email protected] 2 Dr. Junmin Li, Chair for Economic and Social Education, University of Cologne, E-Mail: [email protected] 3 Judith Wiemann Dipl.-Reg.-Wiss., Institute for Economic and Social Geography, University of Cologne, E-Mail: [email protected] 4 Prof. Dr. Martina Fuchs, Economic and Social Geography Institute, University of Cologne, E-Mail: [email protected] 5 Prof. Dr. Matthias Pilz, Chair for Economic and Social Education, University of Cologne, E-Mail: [email protected] © Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, part of Springer Nature 2019 M. Gessler et al. (Ed.), Concepts and Effects of the Transfer of Dual Vocational Training, International Vocational Training Research, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-23185-9_2

14

Wiemann, Li, Wiemann, fox, mushroom

Success factors and obstacles to vocational training cooperation. However, it is also clear that insights do not remain within their disciplines, as the numerous mutual references show. The findings of the neighboring disciplines hold fruitful findings for the investigation of the transferability of vocational system approaches.

1

introduction

The question of the transferability of vocational system approaches and the possibility of exporting vocational training currently play a major role in international vocational training cooperation. While after an initial phase of euphoria, especially in the 1970s (e.g. Schmidt and Benner 1989; Arnold 1985), a certain disillusionment quickly set in with regard to the long-term successes (Lauterbach 2003; Biermann 1994), there is currently increasing discussion again about how and to what extent the German dual vocational training could be transferred to other countries (Clement 2012, p. 102f .; Hummelsheim and Baur 2014). A particularly striking sign of this development are, on the one hand, the contracts concluded with various countries to set up an intensive vocational training cooperation (Thomann and Wiechert 2013; BIBB oJ) and, on the other hand, the establishment of the Central Office for International, entrusted with this task at the Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB) Vocational training cooperation or the German Office for International Cooperation in Vocational Education and Training (GOVET). At the same time, the governments of many other countries are looking for such cooperation as part of their education, growth and development policies. Organizations are also active in providing support at the European and global level (Aring 2014). Multinational companies, be they global players or increasingly

'Lost (in) VET'

15

mend also internationally active medium-sized companies (Fuchs et al. 2016). In addition, vocational training activities are used intensively in the context of development cooperation (Greinert et al. 1997). However, the more recent scientific findings regarding feasibility, successes already achieved, challenges to be overcome and long-term feasibility are very limited. In the German-speaking context, on the one hand, there are approaches that focus on the theoretical foundation of educational transfer (Wolf 2011; Gonon 2012; Geiben 2017) and, on the other hand, approaches that discuss transfer options at a medium level of abstraction (Euler 2013). Concrete, empirically validated results on the export of vocational training can only be found to a limited extent. Exceptions are the studies on the evaluation of the relevant projects of the Society for International Cooperation (GIZ) (Stockmann and Silvestrini 2013; Schippers 2009), the International Labor Organization (ILO) on the implementation of training programs for three major German companies in the USA (Aring 2014) and Gessler's (2016) study on transfer activities of a German automobile manufacturer in the USA. These approaches will be dealt with in detail below. If you broaden your perspective, you can see that it is not just international comparative vocational training research that deals with such issues. Scientific neighboring disciplines also refer to aspects of international transfer and have fruitful approaches and findings ready. These rich discourses and empirical studies have so far been largely ignored across disciplines. The present article addresses this gap and aims to make available knowledge usable for different disciplines. For this purpose, relevant discourses from neighboring disciplines are taken up, outlined and discussed constructively.

16

Wiemann, Li, Wiemann, fox, mushroom

On the one hand, comparative political science approaches are specifically presented in order to map the macro level of the vocational training system. In addition to international comparative studies of 'skill formation systems', this debate deals with questions of policy transfer. This includes the transfer of education, but also includes the transfer of procedures, measures, strategies and concepts in a broader sense. Approaches from comparative educational science, on the other hand, offer insight into the methods, findings and consequences that trace the interaction with the non-vocational components of the educational system. Economic geography is interested in global-local strategies of multinational companies and addresses the international transfer and the local embedding of practices and policies. With this view of transnational economic areas and (re-) localizations, she takes up approaches from the neighboring disciplines: With regard to educational transfer, International Human Resource Management (IHRM), institution-oriented perspectives and research on the transfer of practices are particularly important. In order to counter the complexity of the matter with transparency, this article takes up the various approaches and clarifies parallels and differences with regard to comparative vocational training research in order to consequently bundle the existing knowledge for issues relating to international vocational training cooperation. The title guides the structure of the article. 'Lost (in) VET' refers to the specificity of vocational training as an object of investigation: The slogan 'Lost in VET' refers to the complexity of vocational training and various training activities in the respective countries. In contrast to the general education, which is generally clearly structured and very transparent in all countries, vocational training turns out to be highly complex to chaotic almost everywhere and, as a result, often intranspa-

'Lost (in) VET'

17

rent as well as not understandable for outsiders. As a result, the viewer can very quickly lose himself in the complexity of the matter ('to get lost'). Even more: Especially with the international transfer of dual training to other countries, such as the young growth economies in the Global South (e.g. Brazil, Mexico, India, China), it becomes clear that an understanding shaped by countries like Germany, Austria and Switzerland dual training is known to specialists at best, but not to the general public. With 'Lost in VET' we consciously tie in with the film title 'Lost in Translation', because the 'translation' of dual training, based on the basic idea of ​​professionalism, technical expertise and the corresponding work ethic, is difficult (Wolf 2009). A linguistic and socio-cultural translation would actually be needed. If this transformation is inadequate, this deficiency has a negative impact, e.g. on vocational training cooperation. As a consequence, this problem can lead to disinterest and neglect of this educational area on the educational policy, but also on the scientific level ('Lost VET'), which in turn would have far-reaching consequences for the education and employment system.The literature review as well as the contributions to this anthology report - with all the resulting frictions, translation problems and design requirements - about how important the globalization of skills is, in addition to the globalization of goods, and that for many companies as well as for one, it is not too negligible proportion of employees.

18

Wiemann, Li, Wiemann, fox, mushroom

2

Transfer activities in the focus of interdisciplinary research

While the consideration of educational transfer is primarily a debate in the German-speaking context, in the international and interdisciplinary environment, policy transfer is the main topic. Although this term includes the transfer of education, it also implies the transfer of procedures, measures, strategies and concepts in the broadest sense (Rose 1991). At this point, it is expressly not limited to a narrow understanding of policy on a systemic level. Instead, micropolitical transfer activities come into focus, which are of high relevance for the area of ​​vocational training below system transfer. Hulmes (2005, p. 417) understanding of "movement of ideas and practices" should be followed and the English term policy should be used in its broader version. Policy transfer can be further differentiated on the basis of differently defined meanings, some of which cannot be clearly distinguished from one another. This wide range of terms is based on the fact that on the one hand they cover certain nuances of policy transfer, on the other hand they come from different academic disciplines. The terms 'policy learning' and 'policy transfer', for example, originated in political science; 'Policy diffusion' and 'policy reception', on the other hand, in sociology, social anthropology and history. The terms 'policy borrowing' and 'policy lending' come from comparative educational science (Steiner-Khamsi 2012, p. 6). The present literature review is based on a detailed exploration and review of the available research literature. As part of a

'Lost (in) VET'

19

The relevant thematic areas per discipline were localized using inductive category formation, and overlaps and parallels between the disciplines were analyzed. In order to make the various approaches as clear as possible, the following section will initially proceed separately according to disciplines. The starting point is the outline of the main focus points of the respective discipline. This is followed by the presentation of relevant theoretical-conceptual and empirical results. This is followed by the merging of the respective findings in order to be able to derive possible approaches for vocational training research. A comprehensive literature reproduction cannot be made here; rather, relevant findings are outlined in a focused manner against the background of their usefulness for the transfer of vocational training. Particularly with regard to the large number of empirical application examples in the individual disciplines, only individual studies can be mentioned here as examples.

2.1

Comparative Political Science

The comparative political sciences take into account different state regulation patterns of vocational training for questions in the context of transfer activities and related convergences and divergences (Busemeyer and Trampusch 2012). For such considerations, it is crucial to understand that there are different institutional regulation patterns of market economy organization (Varieties of Capitalism), which go hand in hand with different vocational training systems (Skill Formation Systems). With regard to the consideration of transfer activities, cooperation between governments of two countries is in the foreground. Both transfer processes that take place from one country to another (one-to-one) and those that consider a worldwide diffusion of certain patterns are of interest. The former often relate to the transfer of complex systems or individual system components, which their

20

Wiemann, Li, Wiemann, fox, mushroom

Originate e.g. in development cooperation or in political cooperation. The latter are closely linked to globalization and the convergent lines of development it has brought about (Dolowitz and Marsh 2000, p. 6f.). These globalization tendencies go hand in hand with international standardization processes that launch similar structures and processes worldwide or regionally (Kerr 1983, p. 3). An example of such developments is the amalgamation of political and economic areas to form national communities, such as the European Union (EU) or the World Trade Organization (WTO), in which the members have to implement certain regulations and standards in their own political and economic system (Dolowitz and Marsh 2000, p. 6). When examining transfer activities, comparative political sciences often focus on the relationship between the actors involved and what triggering impulses result from this. In doing so, direct and indirect phenomena of 'lesson drawing' and 'policy diffusion' are examined. Although these terms have different uses, both refer to the transfer processes from one political system to another (Dolowitz and Marsh 2000, p. 5). An essential difference is inherent in these: while lessons drawing describes a voluntary and conscious transfer process, the term 'policy diffusion' also includes unconsciously occurring or enforced activities (Evans and Davies 1999, p. 368). Evans (2009) works out three forms of policy transfer: voluntary transfer or lesson drawing, negotiated transfer and direct involuntary transfer. The voluntary transfer describes a well thought-out, rationally guided transfer of policies from a foreign political system in order to counteract problems in one's own system. The identified solution approaches are examined with regard to their chances of success and feasibility (Rose 2005; Dolowitz and Marsh 2000). The

'Lost (in) VET'

21

Negotiated transfer refers to a transfer process in which the adoption of a certain policy is a condition that must be met in order to be able to receive specific services from another government. Such forms of transfer can be found, for example, in the EU: possible accession is linked to the adoption of certain policies and compliance with specific standards (Shapiro 1992). If a transfer takes place against the will of the receiving country, it is referred to as a direct involuntary transfer. Such transfer activities were particularly widespread in the era of imperialism, when colonial rule imposed certain policies on their colonies (Evans 2009, p. 245; Dolowitz and Marsh 2000, p. 15). In addition to the negotiated transfer according to Evans (2009), Dolowitz and Marsh (2000, p. 13f.) Identify numerous other variations with the combination of properties of voluntary transfer and direct involuntary transfer and then map these in their so-called policy transfer continuum . The transfer process itself is also a focus of attention in comparative political science. Rose (1991, p. 19ff.) Divides this into four phases: The search for policies for improvement processes in one's own country forms the starting point. The development of a corresponding model marks the next step. The prospect of success of the implementation can then take place in the specific contextual framework of the recipient country. This often shows the need for some adjustments resulting from the embedding in the local context, which are implemented in the following phase. The conclusion of the transfer process is the prospective evaluation, with the help of which the chances of success of the implementation are assessed. Mossberger and Wolman (2003, p. 430ff.) Tie in with the importance of such an evaluation, but see it as the starting point of a transfer process. The authors emphasize the need for a detailed examination of the modes of operation and

22

Wiemann, Li, Wiemann, fox, mushroom

contextual framework conditions of the policy as well as consideration of possible differences between the participating countries before the actual transfer takes place. Bennett's (1991, p. 32f.) Process model has only three stages, but goes one step further than Rose, Mossberger and Wolmann by including the actual transfer. The process model by Evans and Davies (1999, p. 377ff.) Even differentiates voluntary transfer into twelve phases. Here, too, a problematic situation in one's own country represents the triggering impulse. In addition to the aspects already mentioned in the context of the other models, the role of an agent or network for obtaining information is of great importance here. Another addition to this detailed model is the exchange between experts from the donor and recipient countries in order to jointly advance the transfer process. In doing so, they consider not only the implementation as part of the model, but also the subsequent monitoring, evaluation and further development of the transferred policy in the recipient country (outcome). In this context, Hulme (2006) draws attention to the difficulties of a rigid process view. In the context of a study on transfer activities in the education sector between the USA and Great Britain, he recalls, with reference to Ball (1990, 1998), that "policy making in education is evolutionary and fluid rather than rational-technocratic and linear with orderly stages and decision points" (Hulme 2006, p. 177). This would result in deviations between the originally planned implementation on a systemic level and the actual implementation (Zhang and Marsh 2016, p. 50). These different forms of transfer results form another focus of comparative political science: Rose (1991) described four possibilities in the 1990s: copying, emulation, hybridization, synthesis and inspiration (also Rose 2005). These options represent a continuum of the full

'Lost (in) VET'

23

Transfer up to the exclusive adoption of ideas and suggestions (Rose 1991, p. 21f.). While the former, according to the author, is rarely found in reality, the latter is often the result of delegation trips abroad (Rose 2005). These degrees of transfer characteristics were subsequently taken up by several authors and used for transfer research. In some cases, minor adjustments were made that will not be discussed further here (e.g. Dolowitz and Marsh 2000; Evans 2004). However, not all transfer activities are successful. Dolowitz and Marsh (2000, p. 17ff.) State three reasons for a failed transfer: First, a transfer can fail if the receiving country has not dealt sufficiently with the functionality and framework conditions of the transfer object or if too little information was available (uninformed transfer ). Second, a transfer can fail if essential components for the functionality have not been transferred (incomplete transfer). If the differences in economic, social, political and ideological framework conditions between the actors involved are too great, this represents a further reason (inappropriate transfer) (also Peters 1997; Hulme 2005). Busemeyer and Vossiek (2016) examine the relevance of social partnership traditions for the development of dual training structures. The authors come to the conclusion that although these contextual conditions exert a considerable influence, they are by no means immutable. Despite large contextual differences, Hulme (2006, pp. 190f.) Identifies the chances of success with rather low-threshold bottom-up approaches, e.g. when organizations exchange best-practice approaches. In summary, it becomes clear that the discourses of comparative political science primarily relate to a systemic level. This condition leads to a critical examination of the transferability of policies. So were dilution effects between the planned

24

Wiemann, Li, Wiemann, fox, mushroom

Implementation and the actual implementation. In particular, the importance of the context is discussed as a possible obstacle. The mode of action of deviating contextual factors does not, however, explicitly move into the focus of the investigation. However, the findings presented provide important insights into both dynamics and limitations in policy transfer and thus important insights for the design of promising transfer efforts.

2.2

Comparative Education

As in comparative political science, transfer research is also a focus in comparative educational sciences. The focus here is on international educational transfer and its design options (Adick 2017, p. 341ff.). In doing so, the potential problem solving through the transfer of external educational ideas, strategies, measures or concepts in the host country is primarily dealt with. The possibilities and interests of the educational export are discussed and global alignment mechanisms are discussed. Against this background, Steiner-Khamsi (2012, p. 8f.) Describes three generations of transference research: The first generation developed fundamental theoretical concepts on different aspects of educational transfer. These include the selective transfer of education (Holmes 1965), the externalization theory (Zymek 1975; Schriewer 1988) and the transnational attraction of policies (Phillips e.g. 2006). These deal primarily with the investigation of voluntary policy transfer movements between industrialized countries. The second generation expanded the geographical radius of the investigation and, in addition to the industrialized countries, also considered emerging and developing countries. In particular, forms of forced transfer by colonial rulers

'Lost (in) VET'

25

scholarship (e.g. Carnoy 1974) and the negotiated transfer between developing countries and transnational organizations (World Bank 1996). The third generation shifted the focus of research from bilateral policy transfer to the internationalization of national educational processes, for example by focusing on international standards (Waldow 2012). Parallels to the findings of comparative political science become clear: Both disciplines distinguish on the one hand between conscious and unconscious and voluntary and involuntary transfer activities on the other (Perry and Tor 2008). These parallels can also be seen in the continuum model of educational transfer by Ochs and Phillips (2004). The authors orientate themselves directly on the findings of Dolowitz and Marsh (2000) from comparative political science and relate them to the educational context. Their model positions the imposed, involuntary transfer of education at one end of the continuum, the politically negotiated transfer of education in the middle and the voluntarily introduced transfer of education at the other end of the spectrum. The authors understand the term 'policy borrowing' to be a transfer that is carried out entirely on a voluntary basis. As in comparative political science, the process of transference is dealt with in this discipline. The models by Phillips and Ochs (2003, 2004) and Cowen (2006) are particularly relevant here. Phillips and Ochs (2003, p. 329ff.) Developed a detailed and often cited process model of 'Policy Borrowing', which represents a four-stage cycle. The first stage focuses on the cross-border attraction of certain policies as a trigger. These can be domestic impulses, such as systemic instabilities, furthermore politically motivated efforts to implement a reform, as well as negative external evaluations of the national situation (Phillips and Ochs 2004, p. 778). Waldow (2016) sits down

26

Wiemann, Li, Wiemann, fox, mushroom

Against the background of the attraction of a policy that precedes a transfer, explores the stereotyping of educational systems in detail. In this way, he identifies positive as well as negative or deterrent ‘reference societies. The second stage of the process model by Phillips and Ochs is dedicated to the possible form of transfer, which in addition to the actual implementation can also (only) include the theoretical and scientific examination of certain system elements. The policy is then introduced in the country of transmission and modeled according to the context factors. If the actors involved agree to the transfer, the system component is embedded and integrated into the existing structures of the receiving country (Phillips and Ochs 2003, p. 456f .; also Ochs 2006, p. 612). Cowen (2006, p. 567) also examines the transformation process and differentiates it into the three phases of transfer, translation and transformation. He describes the transfer as the moment at which a specific topic for the transfer arises. Translation means the interpretation or modeling of the policy through the transfer process.He characterizes the transformation of the policy, which is triggered by the new social and economic context. This also applies to the forms of transfer that are discussed in comparative political science. In addition to the perspective of the receiving country, the comparative educational sciences also explicitly refer to the export character (Adick 2014) of the educational transfer and refer to this as 'policy lending' (Steiner-Khamsi 2002, p. 67; also Tanaka 2005). Robertson, Bonal and Dale (2002) refer in this context to common economic motives for the transferring country (also Ochs and Phillips 2004, p. 8): In particular, knowledge nations whose economic activities are largely based on services

'Lost (in) VET'

27

exist, have a great interest in exporting their knowledge resources. Consulting companies, private educational institutions and the textbook industry in particular benefit from this. It becomes clear that the 'policy lending' approach is not a simple change of perspective from the receiving country to the transferring country. Instead, a distinction must be made between the motives for the transfer and the degree of voluntariness. As in comparative political science, the perspective of comparative educational science is not exclusively aimed at a one-to-one transfer. Dale (1999, p. 5ff.) Drew attention early on to the difference between traditional transfer approaches such as 'policy borrowing' and 'policy lending' as well as the mechanisms of globalization. Against the background of global global trends, comparative educational sciences deal intensively with possible alignment and transfer mechanisms (e.g. Dale 2015; Amos and Parreira do Amaral 2015; Adick 2012, 2005). Upbringing and education have traditionally been viewed as “nationally organized areas of reality” (Adick 2005, p. 244). Such a perspective initially suggests divergent developments in the individual education systems. For years, however, there has been an increasing number of trends that have identified convergence tendencies between countries. This includes, for example, the investigations of the research group around Meyer, Boli and Ramirez (e.g. Meyer and Ramirez 2000; Boli et al. 1985) that are inspired by neo-institutionalist approaches, as well as those that are based on the world system approach according to Wallerstein ( e.g. Wallerstein 1979, 1984) discuss a world model that is dominant worldwide (Adick 1992; 2003). From this perspective, Adick (2003) states that school systems are becoming increasingly convergent. Transnational harmonization phenomena include, for example, the “introduction of compulsory schooling for the codification of curricula and school-leaving qualifications, from the establishment of state educational authorities to the professionalization of the

28

Wiemann, Li, Wiemann, fox, mushroom

Apprenticeship ”(Adick 2003, p. 174). The privatization and expansion of higher education (e.g. Mok 2000), skills-based approaches, the recognition of informally and non-formally acquired skills or national and international qualifications framework (e.g. Kopecky 2014) or the 'Bologna Process' (e.g. Voegtle et al. 2011; Toots and Kalev 2016) as transnational and possibly harmonizing mechanisms are discussed in this context. Burde (2004, p. 177) makes it clear that such export movements can not only originate from individual countries or international organizations, but are also shaped by funding agencies such as the World Bank (for a critical perspective, Kopecky 2014). They determine certain development trends through calls for funding and the associated conditions (Jones 2004, p. 189). Adick (2017) also refers to the importance of para-state cultural intermediary organizations such as the German schools abroad and Goethe-Instituts, which operate, so to speak, "educational transfer in the name of diplomacy" (Adick 2017, p. 341). In the case of a one-to-one transfer as well as global alignment tendencies, the embedding in the context factors is of great importance (Ball 2008, p. 30ff.). The assumption here is less that there are influences hindering transfer, but rather local adjustments as a consequence of a transfer (Ozga and Jones 2006). For example, Kim (2017) examines the influence of cultural and historical framework conditions on educational transfer and examines this using the example of curriculum reforms resulting from the occupation of North and South Korea by the Soviet Union and the USA after the Second World War. The author investigates a major influence of the framework conditions, which leads to a corresponding adjustment - usually lasting years or even decades. Local actors who are familiar with the implementation occupy key positions in the adaptation process.

'Lost (in) VET'

29

In summary, it can be stated that, on the basis of the concepts listed, some parallels to comparative political science can be made. The focus is often on making transfer processes analyzable and understandable (Steiner-Khamsi 2004). Common perspectives and objectives of the transfer partners involved as well as favorable contextual conditions are relevant for both borrowing and lending. Possible international harmonization mechanisms are often viewed more critically against the background of the associated exploitation aspects of education and the orientation towards the needs of the labor market ('econimization' of education, e.g. Dale 2000a, 2000b; Lingard 2010; Takayama 2013) in comparative educational sciences (e.g. Kopecky 2004). These international alignment mechanisms result from the global spread of best-practice approaches, which are understood less as targeted transfer activities and more as a dynamic diffusion.

2.3

Economic geography

The economic geography perspective differs from the comparative political science and educational science perspective in that it does not focus on national systems or system components, but rather subnational locations or selected regions, which in turn are changed by multinational companies and international value chains. In doing so, she directs her attention to the fact that the selected space is not given, but is justified for the respective study. The global transfer of policies at the regional level is also a central issue in economic geography, for example in the context of the discourse on 'mobile policies' (e.g. McCann 2011; Bok and Coe 2017; Ward 2006). Policy transfer is conceptualized as a process in which

30

Wiemann, Li, Wiemann, fox, mushroom

not simply taking a successful policy from A to B; rather, the emergence and transformation of politics is understood as a socially constructed field, which is characterized by specific power constellations and changing ideological associations (Peck and Theodore 2010; Peck 2011). In contrast, the focus of economic geography on the transfer of vocational training practices in multinational companies is still young. So far, the main focus has been on the transfer of academic knowledge within companies, but also between regions (Boschma et al. 2013; Schamp and Stamm 2012). More recent studies on vocational training activities relate to Mexico, India and China (Fuchs et al. 2017a, 2017b; Wiemann 2017) and Vietnam (Wrana and Diez 2016) The economic-geographic perspective is directed towards global-local or 'glocal' contexts (Swyngedouw 1997) focuses on the worldwide unequal geographies between innovative high-tech production and Tayloristic mass production and has recently devoted himself particularly to the question of technological upgrading in emerging economies, which can lead to the need for highly qualified work in these regions (Manning et al. 2010; Manning et al. 2012; Mudambi 2008). The focus on multinational companies and international value chains means that the focus is less on one political system or vocational training system in relation to others, as in comparative political science and education, but rather companies are seen as driving forces that then appear as 'institutional entrepreneurs' can (Wrana and Diez 2016). Such an institutional change need not remain a local isolated case - even if there are many examples of individual lighthouse projects that do not change the institutional landscape in the long term (Wrana and Diez 2016). However, there are also indications that impulses can run 'upwards' from the local to spatially superordinate levels

'Lost (in) VET'

31

and then spread nationally. A prominent example in which something like this is at least partially evident is examined by Fortwengel and Jackson (2016) in the USA. Here, German companies have overcome important institutional barriers (e.g. the risk of trained employees migrating to other companies) through a joint dual training program and have even achieved changes in the national vocational training regulations. Another example can be found in Mexico, where the dual 'model', which is based on the German dual training, is now being disseminated by the state, even if the influence of companies on the introduction of the dual model is significantly more indirect than in the case of the USA ( Wiemann and Fuchs 2017). With a view to the interlinking of companies and regions (understood as actors and institutional context), economic geography combines two perspectives that IHRM and comparative institutional research also pursue. Batt and Hermans (2012, pp. 1f.) Bring these two research strands together. The IHRM is interested in corporate strategies on the micro level to increase competitiveness. The available studies reveal a range of variants (also beyond simple best practice models, see also Gertler 2001). These variants show different patterns of centralization or heterarchies (Furthermore, 1994), such as strategies shaped by the country of origin (or controlled by the head office), decentralized diverse strategies or geocentrically or globally optimized strategies (Pudelko and Harzing 2007). Accordingly, questions of the standardization and diffusion of practices are central issues here (Dickmann et al. 2008; Chiang et al. 2016). As Batt and Hermans (2012) point out, the focus is traditionally on US companies - and above all on executives in large companies with well-developed human resource departments - with smaller companies, networked forms of business and also the precarious working conditions that are widespread around the world however, be neglected. Especially

32

Wiemann, Li, Wiemann, fox, mushroom

European researchers, on the other hand, urge them to include the institutional environment more closely. Comparative institutional research accordingly focuses on the formal and informal rules and control mechanisms in their historical development and in their embedding in actor arrangements and institutional settings. In addition to managers, it also includes employees, trade unions, works councils and other stakeholders (Batt and Hermans 2012). Such a view also opens up the advantage that institutional change is better incorporated than, for example, in comparative cultural studies in the Hofstede tradition (Edwards et al. 2007; Hofstede 1980). Compared to the disciplines presented above in this chapter, which mainly - if not exclusively - deal with transfer activities at the macropolitical level, economic geography thus provides concretization with regard to local peculiarities and is also interested in their relationship to other spatial scales . In doing so, it focuses on the interplay of different types of actors (companies, the state, trade unions, etc.) in the change of institutional frameworks on different scales.

'Lost (in) VET'

2.4

33

Comparative VET research

In comparative vocational training research, transfer activities are mostly discussed from the perspective of Germany as a transferring country.6 Germany is used as a recipient, for example in the context of the Europeanization of the vocational training system (e.g. DQR 2011; Maurer and Gonon 2014a; Bohlinger and Fischer 2015) or in the possible introduction of modular structures from Great Britain considered theoretically (Pilz 1999). The scientific discussion mainly focuses on development cooperation activities (Langthaler 2017), in particular on the question of the transferability of the German vocational training system (Schmidt and Benner 1989; Lauterbach 2003; Greinert et al. 1997; Mayer 2001; Grollmann 2017; a detailed overview of transfer models offers Geiben 2017). This shows clear parallels to the negotiated transfer (shaped by comparative politics and educational sciences) and in the context of commercial vocational training export to 'policy lending' (shaped by comparative educational sciences). Development cooperation primarily pursues goals such as poverty reduction or sustainable economic development in the host country (e.g. Schippers 2009; Jäger 2016) or specifically for the area of ​​vocational training: facilitating the transition from school to employment, coordinating the skills available to school leavers -

6

This is due, among other things, to the fact that the establishment of vocational training research as an independent scientific discipline is a phenomenon in German-speaking countries (for Switzerland e.g. Strahm et al. 2016; for Austria e.g. Dornmayr and Lenger 2010). In other countries, such studies are more likely to be assigned to general educational sciences or to sociological, labor market policy, psychological or educational economics disciplines (Pilz 2015, p. 250ff.). Of course there are exceptions, e.g. Loogma (2016).

34

Wiemann, Li, Wiemann, fox, mushroom

with the needs of the labor market as well as more transparency within the individual vocational training programs and providers in a country (Maurer and Gonon 2014b, p. 22). Formalized training and further education activities are in the foreground, especially in developing and emerging countries (Heller et al. 2015). Maurer and Gonon (2014b, p. 17) also refer to the great influence of international organizations such as the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the ILO and the European Training Foundation (ETF) in the context of vocational training transfer. The World Bank is one of the most important funding agencies for development cooperation, but has significantly reduced its activities in the field of (technical) vocational training since the 1980s. Possible obstacles to transfer or the prospects of success as well as the sustainability of development cooperation projects are of great importance in this discipline. The elaboration by Lewis (2007) outlines the development of the transfer of the German dual vocational training system both to the industrialized countries against the background of voluntary transfer ('policy drawing') and to developing and emerging countries within the framework of development cooperation (negotiated transfer). He concludes that the cultural differences between the transferring and receiving countries are critical to the success of the transfer. The author shows four forms of 'policy borrowing' to avoid disruptions due to cultural differences and shows similarities to the differentiated forms of transmission in comparative political science (Rose 1991, 2005; Dolowitz and Marsh 2000). Pilz (2017a, 2017b) advocates the great importance of a detailed analysis of the different needs and perspectives of the stakeholders involved, which are determined by the regional framework conditions. To this end, he proposes a systematic country analysis on the

'Lost (in) VET'

35

Based on a typology and provides a corresponding multi-perspective approach (Pilz 2016). Building on this, he derives six characteristics that should be taken into account in every transfer project: the specific needs, the provision of necessary resources, experienced training staff, avoiding the risk of fluctuation among trained specialists, evaluation and certification mechanisms with permeability in the education system and adequate employment conditions for specialists. Valiente and Scandurra (2017) also refer to the great importance of contextual conditions in a literature review with regard to the transfer of dual training models in OECD countries (not with a specifically German perspective). According to the authors, the involvement of employers, the institutional capacities to monitor training activities, the reputation of vocational training and the cooperation of the social partners turn out to be central challenges in such transfer activities (with a focus on German vocational training export also Krekel and Walden 2016). Euler (2013) and Gonon (2012) also looked at the possible transferability of the dual training system abroad. Both authors explore the question on a theoretical-conceptual level without specifically addressing a specific recipient country. A complete transfer of the dual system abroad is excluded.However, the transfer of certain elements is quite possible (also Grollmann 2017). Euler (2013) subdivides the dual vocational training system into eleven constitutive elements that can be selected, adapted and transferred by the recipient country according to its framework conditions. Gonon (2012), on the other hand, differentiates between dual systems and dual models, the latter being transferrable. The “spirit of duality” (Gonon 2012, p. 184) could be transferred as “branch or sector-specific solutions or partial elements of an education system” (Gonon 2012, p. 171), but not entire systems

36

Wiemann, Li, Wiemann, fox, mushroom

change. One such example is the activities of the private education provider SENATI in Peru (Edelmann 2003). Against this background, Gonon (2012) identified seven criteria that are necessary for the exportability of dual models (also Schaack 1997). Bliem et al. (2014) identify fundamental challenges and success factors when transferring dual training structures. They also emphasize the influence of the “existing structures and traditions of the respective target country” (Bliem et al. 2014, p. 30) and particularly emphasize the influence of companies. Dual structures can only be implemented in a promising and sustainable manner if the corresponding beneficial effects occur for them (success factor “apprenticeship is worthwhile for training companies” Bliem et al. 2014, p. 49). Wolf (2011) also deals with transferability on a theoretical-conceptual level. His concept of the work culture background of gainful qualifications provides an analytical tool for examining the complex context in which vocational training elements are embedded. This should help to better assess the chances of success of an education transfer. Broken down into six dimensions, it refers to the influence of the production of goods and services in a country, which influence the specific vocational training of a country. In addition to these theoretical-conceptual debates, there are extensive empirical approaches in the field of vocational training cooperation. Schippers (2009) examined the 'Mubarak Kohl Initiative' (MKI) in Egypt, which has been aiming to strengthen the Egyptian economy since 1996 by training young people. Against the background of an impact-oriented analysis model, the research results reveal that a cooperative system of vocational training is generally possible in Egypt. However, Schippers (2009, p. 366, 372) comes to the conclusion that sometimes non-transparent organizational structures are large

'Lost (in) VET'

37

Mean challenges for implementation. Sustainability and self-financing power are also to be viewed critically: This shows a loss of quality after the withdrawal of German consulting services (Schippers 2009, p. 368ff.). Stockmann and Silvestrini (2013) carried out a meta-evaluation of a total of 25 vocational training projects of the former Society for Technical Cooperation (GTZ), the German Development Service (DED) and International Training and Development gGmbH (InWEnt) in order to assess the effectiveness and sustainability of the to evaluate German vocational training funding. From the findings, Stockmann (2013, p. 167) created an expanded model of the key variables for sustainability. This visualizes four decisive factors: flexible control, ownership, personnel and system compatibility. The study comes to the following conclusions, among others: Projects with a limited aspiration profile are more sustainable than projects with a multi-level approach that want to achieve broad impact. The coordination between the qualification offers of the projects and the needs of the economy was also neglected. Furthermore, due to the concentration on formal vocational training, the informal employment sector was not taken into account. Thus, the projects could only have a weak effect on poverty reduction (Stockmann 2013, p. 175). With regard to the export of vocational training (beyond the development cooperation approach), there are only few scientifically founded findings. An exception is the analysis of numerous joint projects of the funding initiative for vocational training export of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). Fraunhofer MOEZ (2012) identified promoting and inhibiting factors for the export of vocational training offers for German vocational training providers. As a result, general competitive advantages and disadvantages are discussed as well as opportunities

38

Wiemann, Li, Wiemann, fox, mushroom

to promote acceptance among the target group and the cooperation with political actors. While comparative research on vocational training primarily analyzes transfer activities on a systemic level, some studies are devoted to individual company actors: Here, the studies by Aring (2014), van der Burgt et al. (2014), Pilz and Li (2014), Gessler (2016), Pilz and Wiemann (2017), Wiemann and Pilz (2017) and Körbel et al. (2017), who move the radius of actors from the state level to the individual company level. These studies pursue the question of the extent to which German multinational companies practice dual training in their subsidiaries abroad and reflect the findings against the background of the transferability of German vocational training abroad. Here, too, the results demonstrate the great influence of local framework conditions. Gessler (2017) identifies successful transfer activities, but the local context has led to significant deviations in the operational structure. This could be more of a transformation than a transfer (against the background of developing cooperation between schools and companies, Flynn et al. 2015 also dealt with transformation processes). There is hardly any empirical examination of policy transfer in vocational training beyond development cooperation or the commercial dimension of education export. An exception is the empirical study on policy transfer from Germany to China by Li (2017), which distinguishes itself from development cooperation as well as the commercial export of education and focuses on a transfer attempt developed singularly for scientific purposes. A look at the vocational training research literature reveals that this discipline primarily focuses on the transferability of dual training

'Lost (in) VET'

39

models focused. In the investigation of the commercial exportability of a component of an education system, there are clear parallels with comparative educational sciences. In addition, connections to the findings of economic geography become clear, since in particular the consideration of actor networks and the important role of companies are taken up.

3

Conclusion

This article has shown that the possible transfer of policies across disciplines is a relevant topic. However, the viewing perspectives differ from one another. Comparative politics and education focus primarily on transfer activities at the systemic level, while economic geography includes local and regional activities in particular. Vocational training research focuses on success factors and obstacles to transfer processes. However, it is also clear that insights do not remain within their disciplines, as the numerous mutual references show. For the (vocational) transfer, it can be deduced that this is generally assessed as challenging. In particular, the attempts to transfer the German dual vocational training system abroad are proving to be sobering. The unsuitable or neglected framework conditions such as economic development, educational system, labor market structure, socio-cultural context and socio-political structure are repeatedly discussed as causes for failure. Across all disciplines, it is agreed that a measure from a foreign context cannot be transferred one-to-one to the recipient country. There are always adaptation processes according to the specific framework conditions in the host country.

40

Wiemann, Li, Wiemann, fox, mushroom

As Georg (2005) makes clear in his remarks on comparative vocational training research, "the detour via foreign experience [...] enables a deeper understanding of the initial problem in one's own society and a reformulation of the problem definition, the underlying theories and paradigms" (Georg 2005 , P. 193). In this sense, a comparison with neighboring disciplines can also help to raise awareness of strengths and research gaps in one's own specialist discipline. As this article has shown, the findings of comparative political and educational sciences as well as economic geography enable the constellations of actors, transfer processes and contextual effects to be better explained. A multi-perspective scientific preparation and accompaniment supports policy transfer processes by prospectively sketching the needs and objectives of the actors involved and recognizing possible obstacles in the transfer and implementation process at an early stage.

Literature Adick, C. (1992). The universalization of the modern school: A theoretical problem sketch to explain the worldwide spread of the modern school in the last 200 years with case studies from West Africa. Paderborn and others: Schöningh. Adick, C. (2003). Global trends in worldwide school development: empirical findings and theoretical explanations. Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaften, 6 (2), pp. 173–187. Adick, C. (2005). Transnationalization as a challenge for international and intercultural comparative education. Tertium Comparationis, 11 (2), pp. 243-269.

'Lost (in) VET'

41

Adick, C. (2012). Transnational Education Organizations: Global Players in a Global Governance Architecture? Tertium Comparationis, 18 (1), pp. 82-107. Adick, C. (2014). Germany as an export country for education. Zeitschrift für Pädagogik, 60 (5), pp. 744–763. Adick, C. (2017). International educational transfer in the name of diplomacy: The foreign cultural and educational policy of the Federal Republic of Germany. Zeitschrift für Pädagogik, 63 (3), pp. 341–631. Amos, S. K., & Parreira do Amaral, M. (Eds.). (2015). International and Comparative Education. History, theory, method and fields of research (New Frontiers in Comparative Education, Vol. 2). Münster: Waxmann. Aring, M. (2014). Innovations in quality apprenticeships for high-skilled manufacturing jobs in the United States at BMW, Siemens, Volkswagen. Geneva: ILO. Arnold, R. (1985). The dual system A model for building efficient vocational training systems in developing countries? Journal for educational and social science research, 2 (2), p. 343 369. Ball, S. J. (1990). Politics and policy making in education. London: Routledge. Ball, S.J. (1998). Big policies / small world: An introduction to international perspectives in education policy. Comparative Education, 34 (2), pp. 119-130. Ball, S. J. (2008). The education debate. Bristol: Policy Press. Batt, R., & Hermans, M. (2012). Global human resource management: Bridging strategic and institutional perspectives. In J. J. Martocchio, A. Joshi & H. Liao (Eds.), Research in personnel and human resources management (pp. 1-52). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing.

42

Wiemann, Li, Wiemann, fox, mushroom

Bennett, C. J. (1991). How states utilize foreign evidence. Journal of Public Policy, 11 (1), pp. 31-54. BIBB (Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training). (no year). Bilateral cooperation. https://www.bibb.de/govet/de/2910.php. Accessed January 02, 2017. Biermann, H. (1994). The dual system - (not) an export hit… Berufsbildung, 26, S. 2 3. Bliem, W., Schmid, K., & Petanovitsch, A. (2014). Success factors of dual training. Transfer options. Vienna: Institute for Economic Research in Education (ibw). http://www.ibw.at/bibliothek/id/259/. Accessed December 12, 2017. Bohlinger, S., & Fischer, A. (Eds.). (2015). Textbook European vocational training policy. Basics, challenges and perspectives. Bielefeld: Bertelsmann. Boli, J., Ramirez, F. O., & Meyer, J. W. (1985). Explaining the origins and expansion of mass education. Comparative Education Review, 29 (2), pp. 145-170. Bok, R., & Coe, N. M. (2017). Geographies of policy knowledge. The state and corporate dimensions of contemporary policy mobilities. Cities, 63, pp. 51-57. Boschma, R., Iammarino, S., & Steinmueller, E. (2013). Editorial: Geography, skills and technical change. Regional Studies, 47 (10), pp. 1613-1617. Burde, D. (2004). International NGOs and best practices: The art of educational lending. In G. Steiner-Khamsi & T. Popkewit (eds.), The global politics of educational borrowing and lending (pp. 173-187). New York et al .: Teachers College Press.

'Lost (in) VET'

43

Van der Burgt, J., Li, J., Wilbertz, C., & Pilz, M. (2014). Qualification strategies of German companies in Japan, India and China - German role models or local procedures? Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft, 17 (1), pp. 135–158. Busemeyer, M. R., & Trampusch, C. (2012). The comparative political economy of collective skill formation. In M. R. Busemeyer & C. Trampusch (eds.), The political economy of collective skill formation (p. 1 34). Oxford and others: Oxford University Press. Busemeyer, M. R., & Vossiek, J. (2016). 'Mission impossible'? Development of dual vocational training in England and Ireland. WSI Mitteilungen, 69 (4), pp. 254-263. Carnoy, M. (1974). Education as cultural imperialism. New York: David McKay. Chiang, F. F. T., Lemański, M. K., & Birtch, T. A. (2016). The transfer and diffusion of HRM practices within MNCs. Lessons learned and future research directions. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 28 (1), pp. 234-258. Clement, U. (2012). Vocational training in German development cooperation. Zeitschrift für Berufs- und Wirtschaftspädagogik, 108 (1), p. 93 107. Cowen, R. (2006). Acting comparatively upon the educational world: Puzzles and possibilities. Oxford Review of Education, 32 (5), pp. 561-573. Dale, R. (1999). Specifying globalization effects on national policy: A focus on the mechanisms. Journal of Education Policy, 14 (1), pp. 1-17. Dale, R. (2000a). Globalization and education: Demonstrating a common world educational culture or locating a globally structured educational agenda? Educational Theory, 50 (4), pp. 427-428.

44

Wiemann, Li, Wiemann, fox, mushroom

Dale, R. (2000b). Globalization: A new world for comparative education? In J. Schriewer (Ed.), Discourse formation in comparative education (pp. 87-109). Frankfurt a. M .: Peter Lang. Dale, R. (2015). Globalization in Comparative Education Re-Visited: The Relevance of the Context of the Context. In S. K. Amos & M. Parreira do Amaral (eds.), International and Comparative Education. History, theory, method and fields of research (pp. 171–187). Münster: Waxmann. Dickmann, M., MüllerǦCamen, M., & Kelliher, C. (2008). Exploring standardization and knowledge networking processes in transnational human resource management. Personnel Review, 38 (1), pp. 5-25. DQR (German Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning). (2011). German qualifications framework for lifelong learning adopted by the German Qualifications Framework Working Group (AK DQR) on March 22, 2011. http://www.dqr.de/media/content/Der_Deutsche_Qualisierungsrahmen_fue_lebenslanges_Lernen.pdf. Accessed December 19, 2017. Dolowitz, D. P., & Marsh, D. (2000). Learning from abroad: The role of policy transfer in contemporary policy-making. Governance: An International Journal of Policy and Administration, 13 (1), pp. 5-24. Dornymayr, H., & Lenger, B. (2010). Austrian export of education. Status quo survey. Vienna: Institute for Economic Research in Education (ibw). Edelmann, D. (2003). Education cooperation with Latin America. An analysis of the cooperation between the Peruvian vocational training institution SENATI and training companies. Munich: Utz.

'Lost (in) VET'

45