What is meant by laminated composite carrier

Rüdiger Müller. The door book. Expertise in planning and construction. 2nd, completely revised edition


1 Rüdiger Müller The Doors Book Expertise for Planning and Construction 2nd, completely revised edition

2 Rüdiger Müller The door book


4 Rüdiger Müller The Doors Book Expertise for Planning and Construction 2nd, completely revised edition Fraunhofer IRB Verlag

5 Bibliographic information from the German National Library: The German National Library lists this publication in the German National Bibliography; detailed bibliographic data are available on the Internet at. ISBN (Print): ISBN (E-Book): Editing: Textbook Editing Silvatext, Juliane Goerke, Rottenburg Production: Angelika Schmid Cover design: Gabriele Wicker and Martin Kjer Typesetting: Photo typesetting Buck, Kumhausen / Hachelstuhl Printing: Westermann Druck Zwickau GmbH, Zwickau Cover images: Daniel Rüdiger Müller, Athmer ohg, Rubner Doors AG, Vario Tec The standards cited here are with the permission of DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e. V. reproduced. The version with the latest issue date, which is available from Beuth Verlag GmbH, Burggrafenstrasse 6, Berlin, is decisive for the application of a standard. All rights reserved. This work, including all of its parts, is protected by copyright. Any use that goes beyond the narrow limits of the copyright law is inadmissible and punishable by law without the written consent of Fraunhofer IRB Verlag. This applies in particular to duplications, translations, microfilming and storage in electronic systems. The reproduction of product names and trade names in this book does not justify the assumption that such names are to be regarded as free within the meaning of the trademark and brand protection legislation and can therefore be used by everyone. If in this work, direct or indirect reference is made to laws, regulations or guidelines (e.g. DIN, VDI, VDE) or are quoted from them, the publisher cannot guarantee that it is correct, complete or up-to-date. If necessary, it is advisable to consult the full regulations or guidelines in the currently valid version for your own work. Fraunhofer IRB Verlag, 2017 Fraunhofer Information Center for Space and Building IRB Nobelstrasse 12, Stuttgart Telephone Fax

6 Foreword If you talk to friends or acquaintances about your professional activity, very few can imagine anything if you say you are concerned with doors. Doors !? What's this? What do you do there? How can you work on or with doors? If you then discuss it more deeply, you quickly come to the conclusion that there is nothing wrong with taking a closer look at doors. After all, these two square meters and often more are taken in hand every day to serve a very specific purpose. Essentially, doors are used to separate, close and open rooms or rooms in general. This has always been a human need since prehistoric times and was implemented from the stone in front of the cave to doors in residential and commercial buildings, in representative buildings, castles and churches. Nowadays, if you are interested in doors, you can find out more on the Internet and quickly discover that doors are more than just an object to lock or close the space behind them. There are over 500 passages in the Bible that have a connection with doors. For generations it has been up to mankind to keep doors open or to open closed doors in order to find each other. Doors have always served as demonstration areas. As early as 1517, the reformer Martin Luther posted his 95 theses on the church door for a reason and thus revolutionized the Christian community through the separation of faith. On church doors in particular, sculptures and carvings of excellent craftsmanship about the life of Christ or religious scenes can often be seen. When I started my carpenter apprenticeship in 1958 at the age of 14 in the apprenticeship workshop at Rief windows and doors factory in Rosenheim, I could not have imagined that working on and with doors would accompany me for almost my entire professional life; although as a joiner and cabinet maker I would have preferred to work with individually manufactured furniture than with industrially manufactured doors. At that time, the devastating construction industry developed rapidly, not least because of the war events. From the “joiner's door” to the industrially manufactured door was given. This was intensified by the heralded economic miracle and the immense housing construction that was emerging in the sixties and seventies. In the seventies in West Germany alone there was talk of the completion of apartments per year! Due to the ongoing standardization, the production of the industrial lock door, built into a steel frame, was in full bloom. The industrially manufactured external door / front door also increasingly replaced the handcrafted carpenter's door. In the 1980s and 1990s, doors became nothing more than a means to an end; H. Closing of spaces viewed, but received significant constructive performance improvements. The requirements became higher and the doors had to meet them. In addition, with regard to the opening up of the European economic area, standardization work acquired a new meaning for construction elements in general and thus also for doors. It was no longer about the creation of test standards, but rather the creation of requirement standards. Due to the standardization work of the individual European countries over decades, this has not only led to hard discussions but also to many compromises. It can be seen as a silent revolution if you consider that starting at the end of the eighties, so to speak in the last quarter of a century, most of the national standardization work was predominantly 5

7 Foreword had to be replaced by European standardization. So are the formal disputes today, such as B. CE mark, building product regulation, need for monitoring, etc. more in the foreground. Unfortunately, this is why practice is being pushed more and more into the background by theory. While the forerunner "The Doors Book" still focused on the structural details and the beginning of the normative specifications, this specialist book focuses on the new constructions to improve the stamina, the new material properties to improve the sound insulation, the question of fire resistance. and smoke protection, standardization work as well as labeling, acceptance and maintenance. But the index has also been completely revised so that information such as B. light-tight doors, deformation height, draft, specific requirements for apartment entrance and exterior doors can be found even better. This specialist book has the task of serving in particular as an information mediator and reference work, but does not claim to do justice to a door encyclopedia. The main purpose of this textbook is to: Provide the designer with ideas for execution with regard to the performance requirements, such as B. Influences on the deformation, position of the sealing arrangement, material properties, dimensions, dependence on sound insulation, burglary protection or panic. Provide the appraiser, architects, builders, industrialists and craftsmen as well as consumers with information and regulations for the requirements. Giving students, masters and trainees suggestions and introducing them to the variety of door technology. Giving the "standardizers" and rule-setters assistance in making practical specifications. Show the planner and architect that the door, even if it is an everyday object, has its price as well as quality! Due to the high functional properties and expectations of the consumer, ongoing maintenance and care according to the manufacturer's specifications is urgently required. Above all, it is important that the planning architect draws up a clear invitation to tender with regard to the design and requirements. Point out to the craftsman to deal even more intensively with the entire constructive and creative feasibility on the basis of the performance requirements. Give the construction supervisor instructions on how to proceed with the acceptance. This textbook is intended to be used as a tool for daily work on doors. A specialist book is good if it no longer looks new within a short period of time, but you can see that it is being "worked" with. Above all, it should provide specific answers to the questions that arise in daily practice. If you do not have any answers, you are asked to send the questions to the authors or to the PfB test center for components. This door should be open to all readers so that these questions can also be taken into account in any further edition and, if necessary, included as answers. According to the motto "Look in the door book", it should be a professional companion for all those looking for advice on dealing with door technology issues. I am always open and grateful for suggestions, suggestions for improvement and constructive criticism as well as contributions! Rüdiger Müller 6

8 Acknowledgments »The Doors Book« was published as a reference book by DRW-Verlag in 2002, at the time for the opening of our new building in Stephanskirchen. When it was out of print after a few years and the rights were back with me as the author, the continued demand could initially only be met with a bound copy. This high demand was the decisive factor in completely revising the door book. The new edition was created in cooperation with my employees and colleagues from the test center for construction elements (PfB), Marion Schwaiger, Michael Ewald, Christoph Geiger and Andreas Wastlhuber. I would like to thank them for their valuable work, their expertise and their time. My thanks also go to Peter Mayer, who was responsible for coordinating the text contributions and compiling the manuscript in the first few days after completing his bachelor's degree and starting work at the PfB. I would like to thank my son Daniel R. Müller, who, as a photographer, contributed to a large number of the interesting and exciting photos for Chapter 8 through his professional activity. My special thanks go to "my" editor Juliane Goerke (specialist book editor SilvaText) for revising the manuscript and for critically examining the technical content. She has not only revised the linguistic area, but has also dealt intensively with the individual technical topics through questions to the co-authors and myself. It has proven to be worthwhile that Juliane Goerke worked as an editor for my first book, “The Doors Book” in 2002. 7th


10 Contents Foreword ... 5 Acknowledgments Industry situation Materials Wood Solid wood Veneer Wood-based materials Metals Aluminum Steel Plastic Duroplasts Thermoplastics Elastomers Glass Soda-lime silicate glass Tempered safety glass (ESG and ESG-H) Partially toughened glass (TVG) Laminated safety glass (VSG) Multi-pane insulating glass (MIG) Vacuum Insulating glass (VIG) Standardization and labeling What is a standard? Development of a standard Standard areas National standardization (DIN) European standardization (EN) International standardization (ISO) Standard documents Forms of publication At European level At international level Legal relevance of standardization Labeling

11 Contents Free certification marks Mandated certification marks Dimensions and tolerances Internal doors External doors Tolerances Distance to the floor Distance to the wall or reveal Wood protection Constructive wood protection Wood protection through material selection Solid wood Wood-based materials Chemical wood protection Coating treatment Environmental protection Environmental protection and coating Environmental protection and material selection Environmental protection and energy saving Environmental protection and disposal Requirements Design requirements Technical requirements Minimum requirements Special requirements Planning List of services (tender) System description Recommendation for tendering doors Shape changes (for larger door systems) Requirements Standard and special requirements Materials Surface treatment Infill / panel / filling Assembly Processing Further information Construction and design specifications Constructive problem areas Material door frame / door frame / door frame / Frame door leaf / door wings l Definition of terms, cross-sectional training, fold training

12 8.5.


14 11. Causes and consequences of condensation water loss Prevention of condensation water formation Sound insulation Purpose of sound insulation Legal requirements Use in accordance with state building regulations DIN 4109 Sound insulation in building construction Guideline VDI guideline VDI draft product standard Interior doors pren: Usability of soundproof doors Proof of usability of soundproof doors Suitability test of soundproof doors Construction information for soundproof doors Single-leaf door leaves


16 16 Bullet resistance, explosion resistance, radiation protection Bullet resistance Intended use Testing and classification Blasting resistance Intended use Testing and classification Radiation protection doors Intended use Testing and classification Constructive designs Installation Maintenance and care Marking Damp and splash-proof doors (formerly damp and wet room doors) Doors in damp or wet areas Requirements Moisture-resistant doors Splash-proof doors Tests Testing of moisture-resistant door leaves Testing of splash-proof door leaves Scope of testing Test result and classification Marking and certification RAL quality monitoring and marking when testing according to RAL-GZ 426 / assembly Requirements for the building structure connection Regulations Connection types Plastered frame Sealing and building structure connection Fastening on the structure assembly of external doors connection area wall, ceiling or lintel connection area Door base plate Installation of internal doors Pressure-proof backing Gap dimensions The joint Installation of functional doors Fire and smoke protection doors Sound insulation Thermal insulation Burglary protection

17 Contents 19 Maintenance and care Definitions Maintenance Maintenance Warranty Maintenance Product liability Legal requirements General Maintenance contract Maintenance interval Maintenance intervals Cleaning Contractor's obligation Quality assurance, quality management, quality monitoring, certification Definition of terms Quality Quality assurance Quality management Development of quality management Quality monitoring through RAL certification of products Certification in the area of ​​certification required by the building authorities on a voluntary basis In-house production control WPK (in-house monitoring) External monitoring External monitoring based on mandated European standards Typical damage to doors Causes of damage to doors Typical notifications of defects Complaints Avoid complaints in advance. Observance of the increased optical requirements The correct assembly Instructions for handling, maintenance and care Procedure in the event of a complaint How to make a complaint correctly The expert VOB and BGB The income regulations for construction work (VOB) The civil code (BGB) Contract types BGB work contract VOB construction contract Contract types

18 23.4 The acceptance Actual formal acceptance, 640 BGB, 12 No. 1 VOB / B Fictitious acceptance 12 No. 5 VOB / B The guarantee according to 13 VOB / B Rights due to poor performance according to the BGB-works contract Guarantee for the VOB contract Appendix Bibliography List of abbreviations List of standards and guidelines Standards Directives Ordinances Subject index


20 1 1 Industry situation The door industry is generally subject to fluctuations in the construction industry in the respective countries or market areas. Due to the sharp slump in the construction industry in the Federal Republic of Germany between 2000 and 2005, sales of doors were also slowed. The discontinuation of the tax incentives at that time and other, in some cases considerable and interesting investment grants (Aufbau Ost) severely paralyzed the construction industry in Germany. On the other hand, such a situation can also offer advantages as it brings the domestic door industry back down to earth. Because the overheated construction industry, motivated by taxpayers' money, which followed the motto “Departure to the East”, quickly subsided again. As a logical consequence, at the end of 2001 over 90% of the well-known door manufacturers rated the situation of the door industry in German-speaking countries as negative. Last but not least, the overcapacities built up during the “sales boom” were responsible for this, which has now revealed a sharp drop in sales, especially for standard doors. There was great competition in this sector. The situation changed again as early as 2005. A continuous increase in residential construction activity was recorded, especially in western Germany and the larger cities in east and west. After the global economic slump in 2008, the construction industry picked up speed in the years that followed the great banking crisis, but did not yet return to the strength of the 1990s.The trend towards investment in concrete gold thus also led to investment in "door gold" GDP and construction investments at constant prices, 1991 = 100 gross domestic product Construction investments Fig. 1.1 Comparison of gross domestic product and construction investments [Source: Hauptverband der Deutschen Bauindustrie e. V.] Fig. 1.2 Production of industrially manufactured door leaves [Source: Author, data based on information from VHI e. V.] [million Pcs.] 6.6 6.4 6.2 6 5.8 5.6 5.4 5,

21 1 Industry situation, 6% 4.9% 5.2% 2.7% 1.9%, 8% 6.8% 3.8% 4.6% 3.6% Fig. 1.3 Development of door potential overall [1 000 doors] / change compared to previous year [%] / figures in thousands [source: B + L Marktdaten GmbH] Fig. 1.4 Development of the potential for apartment doors [1,000 doors] / change compared to previous year [%] / figures in thousands [source: B + L Marktdaten GmbH], 1% 1.6% 1.9% 1.6% 2.2% Fig. 1.5 Development of the potential for doors in business (no residential doors) [1,000 doors] / change compared to previous year [% ] / Figures in thousands [Source B + L Marktdaten GmbH] After the further increase in the construction industry in 2014 and 2015, the door industry may now be facing a boom again due to the unexpectedly high number of refugees. In addition, renovation measures, not least due to the requirements of the Energy Saving Ordinance EnEV, have increased massively (Fig. 1.1 and Fig. 1.2). The residential construction sector in particular will benefit disproportionately from this expected boom compared to non-residential construction. Sales of non-residential building doors have recorded constant decrease in recent years and it can be assumed that they will remain constant in the following years. In general, the overall door sales will develop positively due to the increased construction activities in the Federal Republic of Germany (Fig. 1.3 to Fig. 1.6). The European standardization with regard to the harmonized norms and from it the requirement of the CE marking with the submission of a declaration of performance led to multifunctional and very high quality doors. This need for CE marking is certainly to the benefit of consumers and door technology. From Figure 1.2 it can be seen that, starting from the year 2000, there was again an increase in the number of units. Plastic, which has been used for a long time in windows, has also established itself in the area of ​​exterior doors. The share of plastic and aluminum exterior doors in residential construction was around 32% each in 2014. Aluminum and plastic have thus displaced wood with a market share of approx. 25% from the exterior door area (Fig. 1.7). However, if you look at the entire door market, including commercial properties, the balance shifts a bit in favor of aluminum. The market share of plastic for door elements can still be classified as low at just under a tenth, which is completely contrary to the window industry. An increase can also be seen in the case of interior doors, although the EnEV cannot result in an increase. Here the renovation area only starts on the basis of beautification. This should be from the 20th

22 1 interior door manufacturers can also be recognized and emphasized even more through the appropriate design and fittings. The market share for interior doors can be seen as dominating for the material wood with approx. 90% in residential construction and with approx. 60% in »non-residential construction«. In the case of external doors, the frame construction, manufactured as a solid wood door, is still represented by a majority of approx. 70% in residential construction. However, great efforts are made by so-called blank manufacturers who have brought very interesting products with all the technical verification certificates onto the market, especially for the carpenter. Because of the ever increasing demands on internal and external doors, the industry saw a market opportunity here to "do it yourself" and to serve the trade with tailor-made door leaf blanks (see Chapters 8 and 11). The development and demand for interior doors can be seen in Figure 1.3. Veneered doors are on the decline in interior doors with a current market share of approx. 16%. The shift towards the use of white lacquer or the CPL laminate, which is widely popular in the wood-based materials industry, is due to the improvement in surface quality, both visually and mechanically (Fig. 1.8). The innovative spirit of well-known interior and exterior door manufacturers led to the fact that the carpenter was gradually able to use a »cooking recipe« from the industry or the component trade. In order to do justice to the market of the future, speed, quality and customer loyalty are required with a well-engineered product. Various well-known industrial door manufacturers have brought complete systems onto the market that enable craftsmen to order all types of exterior doors, arcade doors and house entrance door systems, both as blanks and as pre-assembled exterior doors. Many craft businesses are overwhelmed by meeting all of these door elements requirements at short notice. System providers provide opportunities for progressive craft businesses, e.g. B. to produce smoke protection doors or burglar-resistant doors partly in combination (multifunctional doors) in-house (Fig. 1.9). The handicraft businesses (= licensees) have to contact the system provider from time to time (usually annually) for the renovation area 42.4% 42.6% 44.0% 44.9% 45.6% 57.6% 57.4% 56, 0% 55.1% 54.4% new construction area Fig. 1.6 Development of the proportion of renovations in the door potential [%] [Source: B + L Marktdaten GmbH, slightly modified by the author] Wood 25.5% Other 9.4% Plastic 32 , 8% aluminum 32.2% Fig. 1.7 Market share of materials for exterior doors in residential buildings (figures from 2014) [Source: VFF] 2.5% 22.0% 25.5% 7.3% 9.6% 25, 9% 7.3%, 8% 15.8% 28.6% 5.3% 7.9% 29.7% 7.7% 2014 Others Veneer White lacquer Solid film CPL HPL Fig. 1.8 Surface distribution in the overall market for interior doors [in %] [Source: B + L Marktdaten GmbH] 21

23 1 Subject the industry situation to a training course. Exemplary embodiments can be found in Figure 1.9. In terms of quality management, the door industry is comparable to other manufacturing branches of industry. Almost all large door manufacturers have been certified according to the ISO 9000 series of standards in the past decade. All well-known manufacturers have at least one, but usually several doors with special functions, such as smoke protection or burglar resistance, in their range. The multifunctional door thus has its fixed market share. Fig. 1.9 Embodiments of the TSH system [source: TSH System GmbH] 22

24 2 2 Materials Michael Ewald Modern doors usually consist of a combination of several materials. There are hardly any limits to the design options and combinations of the door leaf structures. The different physical and mechanical properties are used to design doors for special requirements (e.g. highly soundproof doors). Particular attention must be paid to how the different materials react to changes in temperature, humidity and length, e.g. B. when using aluminum vapor barriers, steel reinforcements and stabilizers or door constructions made of wood with facings made of aluminum. The choice of the right material or the right combination of materials and the right coating system depend to a large extent on the intended use (e.g. bullet-resistant door) and the place of use (e.g. the effects of weathering in an unprotected location). A large number of materials are available for manufacturing doors. The most important materials for practical use are: Wood and wood-based materials Metals (especially steel and aluminum) Plastics (especially PVC, PU and EPDM) Glass (framed and unframed = all-glass). The materials most frequently used to manufacture interior doors in residential construction in the mid to late 1990s were wood and its derivative products, wood-based materials (HWS). The proportion of wood used in residential construction was on average around 60%, followed by aluminum, plastic and glass. As shown in Chapter 1, Figure 1.7, the materials aluminum and plastic with around 32% each have pushed back the material wood with only around 25%. If, on the other hand, one considers the area of ​​interior doors, wood and wood-based materials are still to be regarded as dominant with approx. 90%. In the commercial sector, the situation is a little different. Door constructions made of aluminum are still predominantly used there. The market share of plastic compared to the window industry is negligible. Although the window and door industry cooperates in many areas, the development of windows looks completely different in terms of the materials used. The proportion of wooden windows is falling sharply. The triumphant advance of plastic or aluminum windows and wood-aluminum windows that began years ago continues. 2.1 Wood Wood is the slang term for the main organic substance of trunks, branches and roots of woody plants. A distinction is made between softwoods and hardwoods. Softwood is older in terms of development history. This type of wood has only two types of cells, the tracheids and parenchyma cells. The tracheids are arranged axially and are responsible for water conduction and consolidation. The parenchymal cells are arranged axially and radially and take over the function of storage. In addition, the resin channels form epithelial cells in an axial and radial arrangement, which are responsible for the resin excretion. Examples of commonly used softwoods of European origin are: 23

25 2 Materials DIN 4076 (from 1985) Wood type DIN EN (since 2003) DIN 4076 (from 1985) Wood type DIN EN (since 2003) FI spruce PCAB KI pine PNSY TA fir ABAL LA larch LADC DGA Douglas fir PSMN Tab.2.1 Frequently used softwoods [Source: based on DIN 4076: and DIN EN 13556:, slightly modified by the author] BU z. B. European beech FASY EI Oak QCXE ES Ash FXEX AH z. B. Norway maple ACPL ROB Robinia ROPS Tab. 2.2 Frequently used hardwoods [Source: Based on DIN 4076: and DIN EN 13556:, slightly modified by the author] DIN 4076 (from 1985) Wood type DIN EN (since 2003) MAE Khaya Mahogany KHXX TEK Teak TEGR BAU Bangkirai (Balau) SHBL MER Red Meranti SHDR AFXX Afzelia AFXX Tab. 2.3 Frequently used tropical woods [Source: Based on DIN 4076: and DIN EN 13556:, slightly modified by the author]] This hardwood is younger in development a much more differentiated structure. In simplified terms, these are the vessels (axial arrangement, water conduit function), the libriform fibers (axial arrangement, consolidation function), the parenchymal cells (axial and radial arrangement, storage function) and the less common tracheids (axial arrangement, consolidation function). Examples of commonly used hardwoods of European origin are: The term tropical wood, mostly heartwood of tropical hardwood species, summarizes wood that comes from the tropical and subtropical forests in Central and South America, Asia and Africa and is defined by the origin of the wood. Due to the growth in a constant climate and the ingredients stored in the core, it often has better mechanical properties and a higher natural durability compared to softwood and hardwood species of European origin. Examples of frequently used tropical timbers are: The abbreviations for individual types of wood are listed in DIN EN 13556: »Round and sawn timber nomenclature of commercial timbers used in Europe«, which DIN 4076: »Designation and abbreviations in the wood sector; Holzarten «in 2003. Nevertheless, these abbreviations are still in use in German-speaking countries. Depending on the type of wood, the main chemical components of softwood and hardwood are approx.% Cellulose, approx.% Hemicellulose, approx.% Lignin, up to 3% other ingredients and minerals (with tropical woods up to 15%) and ash (inorganic components) up to 0.5%. Expressed in the elemental composition 50% carbon, 43% oxygen, 6% hydrogen and less than 1% nitrogen. In addition to the bulk density and the elastomechanical properties, the species-specific wood properties are primarily determined by the anisotropy of the basic anatomical directions of the wood, axial, radial and tangential, as well as by the hygroscopic properties, moisture absorption and moisture desorption. The average axial shrinkage approx. 0.3%, radial 5% and tangential 10% are shown in Figure 2.3. See also Chapter 5, Tab. 5.1 Equilibrium wood moisture content, shrinkage and swelling of various types of wood. Wood is a versatile material, the properties of which are largely determined by the type of wood used. Wood is a widespread building material for door construction, as it offers a wide variety of design options in coordination with the architecture (exterior facade) of the building like hardly any other material. 24

26 Wood 2 Cellulose approx% Home cellulose approx% Lignin approx% Other ingredients approx. 3% ash up to 0.5% Fig. 2.1 Structural substance depending on the type of wood [Source: Based on A. Wagenführ and F. Scholz »Taschenbuch der Holztechnik« Carl Hanser Verlag Munich (2008)] carbon 50% oxygen 43% hydrogen 6% nitrogen <1% Fig. 2.2 Elemental composition of wood [Source: Based on A. Wagenführ and F. Scholz "Taschenbuch der Holztechnik" Carl Hanser Verlag Munich (2008 )] Wood is also an energy-saving, natural, ecological and, above all, renewable (sustainable) raw material. With material-specific production and the selection of suitable constructions and coating systems, doors made of wood and wood-based materials (also for use outdoors) are long-lasting, dimensionally stable components. Not all types of wood are equally suitable for the production of doors, especially for dimensionally accurate and weather-resistant exterior doors. In order to ensure functionality and usability over a long period of time, suitable types of wood should be used. The natural durability classes as well as the structural and chemical wood protection are explained in more detail in Chapter 5, among other things. In DIN EN 350-2: many types of wood are described in this regard, which are shown in extracts in the tables. The durability of the respective type of wood is only related to the heartwood, because the sapwood is classified as non-permanent for all types of wood and should be classified in durability class 5. In addition, regular maintenance and care is essential for doors, especially those that are exposed to the outside climate. The required scope of maintenance and care measures depends on a number of factors, such as: B. the place of use, the type of wood used and the functional requirements. This is covered in Chapter 19. A compilation of the standards on wood is provided in the DIN pocket book 31 "Norms on Wood". It represents the current status of the standards on wood and is a tried and tested reference work for planners, architects and builders as well as for the wood processing industry, the wood trade, authorities and testing institutes. In terms of content, this paperback deals with the topics of construction timber for load-bearing purposes, dimensions and tolerances, types of wood with characteristic values ​​and symbols, durability and the quality conditions Solid wood The term solid wood, also known as solid wood, is used for workpieces that are consistently made of wood in its natural state Structure exist. Wood products made of solid wood are made from trunks or trunk sections by machining (planing, milling, drilling). Products such as B. masts, supports or posts are referred to as logs. Products that are manufactured by machining (sawing) parallel to the trunk axis and have a rectangular cross-section are referred to as sawn timber. 25th

27 2 Materials Scientific name Trade name Origin Density / range of mean values ​​at u = 12% kg / m 3 Mushrooms Longhorn beetles Anobium Termites Heartwood Sapwood Natural durability Impregnability Sapwood width Comments Picea abies (L.) Karst. E: Norway Spruce F: Epicéa D: Spruce Europa SH SH S 3 4 3v x Pinus sylvestris L. E: Scots Pine Redwood F: Pin sylvestre D: Pine Föhre Europa SSS s to m Abies alba Mill., A. excelsior Franco [ = A. grandis (Dougl.) Lindl.] A. procera Rehde E: Fir F: Sapin D: Fir silver fir Europe North America SH SH S 2 3 2v x Larix decidua Mill. L. kaemferi (Lamb.) Sarg. [= L. leptolepis (Sieb. & Zucc.) Gord.], L. x eurolepis A. Henr. L. occidentails E: Larch F: Mélèze D: Larch Europe Japan S S S 4 2v s Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco E: Douglas Fir F: Douglas D: Douglas fir North America; Cultivated in Europe S S S S S S s s Tab. 2.4 Natural durability and impregnability of softwoods [Source: Based on Table 2, DIN EN 350-2:, slightly modified by the author] Explanation of the symbols in Tables 2.4 to 2.

28 Wood 2 Scientific name Trade name Origin Density / range of mean values ​​at u = 12% kg / m 3 Fungi Anobium Termites Heartwood Sapwood Natural durability Impregnability Sapwood width Remarks Fagus sylvatica L. E: European Beech F: Hêtre D: Beech Europe SS 1 (4) 1 x waterability (4) of red heart if present Quercus robur L., Q. petraea (Matt.) Liebl. E: European Oak F: Chêne rouvre D: Eiche Europa SM 4 1 s Sapwood Lyctus n / a Hespero phanes S Fraxinus excelsior L. E: European Ash F: Frêne D: Esche Europa SS 2 2 (x) a) Acer pseudoplatanus L ., b) A.platanoides L. E: a) Sycamore Maple b) Norway Maple F: Erable Sycomore D: Maple Europe SS 1 1 x Robina pseudoacacia L. E: Robinia F: Robinier faux-acacia D: Robinia North America Europe n / a D s Tab. 2.5 Natural durability and impregnability of hardwoods [Source: Based on Table 3, DIN EN 350-2:, slightly modified by the author] 27

29 2 Materials Scientific name Trade name Origin Density / range of mean values ​​at u = 12% kg / m 3 Fungi Anobium Termites Heartwood Sapwood Natural durability Impregnability Sapwood width a) Khaya ivorensis A. Chev., A) K. anthoteca (Welw.) C. DC. b) K. grandifolia C. DC. X: Acajou d Afrique O: African Mahogany O: Khaya O: Khaya Mahogany West / East Africa a) b) n / a S 4 2 s Tectona grandis L. f. X: Teak F: Teck D: Teak Asia cultivated in Asia and other countries n / an / a MM to S 4 n / a 3 n / asn / a Shorea laevis Ridl. S. atrinervosa Sym., S. glauca King A. sp.pl (section Shorea) X: Balau (Yellow) O: Bangkirai Asia S S 2 2 (x) Shorea collina Ridl. S. guiso (Blco.) Bl. (Section Shorea) S. kunstleri King, S. sp.pl (section Brachypterae) X: Dark Red Meranti Southeast Asia n / a M 4v 2 s Afzelia bipindensis Harms, A. pachyloba Harms, A . sp.pl X: Doussé O: Afzelia West Africa n / a D 4 2 s Tab. 2.6 Natural durability and impregnability of tropical woods [Source: Based on Table 3, DIN EN 350-2:, slightly modified by the author] Comments 28

30 Wood 2 In the case of solid wood-based materials, on the other hand, the natural structure is changed with the aim of creating the most homogeneous physical and mechanical properties possible. Typical examples are “solid wood panels” (also glued wood panels or cross-laminated timber), which consist of rectangular, rod-shaped glued lamellas (laminated wood) or multi-layer panels made of solid wood layers (thick veneers). Further information on wood-based materials can be found in the following chapter Wood-based materials For example, if a door is referred to as solid oak, the cross-section must consist of solid wood / wood layers of the wood type oak through and through. If the frames (friezes) of a door are made of solid ash wood, but the panels are not made of solid ash but made of wood-based materials, the door can be described as "solid ash door with wood-based panels". The correct naming of the wood species (botanical name, abbreviation, origin and natural distribution and standard names in English, French and German) can be found in DIN EN 13556: In the case of solid wood, wood modification processes are increasingly being used. In addition to chemical modification (acetylation, wood crosslinking, etc.), the best-known wood modification is thermal modification (thermal treatment). The physical properties of the wood are changed by high temperatures over a long period of time in the absence of oxygen. This increases the durability (fungus resistance) and dimensional stability (less swelling and shrinking behavior). However, this happens at the expense of the mechanical properties. Thermowood (TMT = thermally modified timber), with a wide variety of product names depending on the manufacturer, is regulated in the technical specification DIN CEN / TS 15679: Veneer Veneer is a thin sheet of wood separated from the log or parts of the trunk by sawing, knives or peeling. The different types of veneer (barrier veneer, face veneer and bottom veneer), their manufacturing processes and different uses are defined in DIN 68330:. The thickness from which a veneer is designated as such is not regulated in the standard. In DIN 4079: nominal thicknesses for veneers of different types of wood are specified, which are usually between 0.5 and 0.6 mm and are referred to as normal veneer. Depending on the intended use, other veneer thicknesses are also produced, which are divided into micro veneers (between approx. 0.1 0.3 mm) and thick veneers (between approx. 0.9 2.5 mm, up to approx. 8 mm) according to their thickness can be. There is a smooth transition between the veneer thicknesses. The use of thin sliced ​​veneers for door leaf cover layers is widespread in the door industry. Interior doors in particular are mostly panel doors made of wood-based materials with face veneers. In the case of framed doors or smooth doors outdoors, the top layer used is often a thicker wood veneer that has been treated with a suitable coating system. Veneered surfaces are increasingly being pushed back by opaque coated surfaces and surfaces made of DKS (decorative plastic laminate). This laminate consists of papers soaked in synthetic resin, which are fused under heat and pressure. Two types of laminates are differentiated through different manufacturing processes: CPL (Continuous Pressure Laminate) HPL (High Pressure Laminates) CPL (Continuous Pressure Laminate) is produced in roller belt presses using a continuous or endless process and HPL (High Pressure Laminates) is produced in multi-layer presses. The DKS panels can be printed in color in any conceivable decor such as B. produce imitations of wood, stone or leather optics. Not only the color, but also the surface structure can be embossed into the surface using different press plates during the manufacturing process. Detailed information on DKS (decorative plastic laminate) can be found in the DIN EN 438 series of standards Wood-based materials Wood-based material (HWS) is a collective term for all products that are produced by cutting, chipping and / or shredding the wood and then 29

31 2 Materials joining / sticking together. This is usually done with the help of additional substances such as glue, resins, mineral binders and other additives. The end product is a plate-shaped material. A whole range of "new" materials, so-called wood-based materials (HWS), can be produced from the raw material wood, depending on the degree of decomposition and the addition of other substances. Inexpensive types of wood (plantation wood) or by-products that arise in woodworking or wood processing and cannot be processed into solid wood or veneer wood are often used as starting materials. The physical and mechanical properties of the end product are specifically influenced, such as B. compressive strength, dimensional stability, coatability and edge processing. The aim of production is to produce an inexpensive and homogeneous material with defined material properties. The wood-based materials most frequently used in the door industry are: Chipboard / flat pressed board Extruded boards (can only be used as a middle layer) Plywood / laminated veneer lumber Blockboard (stick and stick plywood) Wood fiber boards (MDF: medium density fibreboard / HDF: high density fibreboard) Long chipboard or coarse chipboard (OSB: English oriented strand board) The majority of the board materials serve as carrier material, i.e. H. they are usually provided with a face veneer or other covering surface coatings. From time to time, especially in the case of furniture (shelves), the surfaces of z. B. OSB used as a decorative surface. In combination with »isolators« or »sound improvers« such as PU, cork, rubber, etc., wood-based materials are used as fillings for external doors. Laminated veneer lumber panels are often used to stiffen the frame for burglar-resistant doors. Since there are a large number of wood-based materials manufactured with a wide variety of adhesive systems for the most varied areas of application, the national and European standards are not listed here. The DIN pocket book 60 "Wood-based materials 1 Wood fiber boards, chipboard, OSB, plywood, laminated veneer lumber, solid wood boards, panels" provides a compilation of the standards on wood-based materials. 2.2 Metals Fig. 2.4 Various wood-based materials [Source: EUWID] Metal is a collective term for solid, chemical elements with a strong luster due to high reflectivity (metallic luster). A mixture of these elements is called an alloy. These consist of two or more fused elements that have different technical properties depending on their composition. Most metals usually have a homogeneous crystalline structure at room temperature. As a result, the iron materials in particular have high strengths. Due to the high mobility of the free electrons, metals have an excellent electrical and thermal conductivity (thermal conductivity) that decreases with increasing temperature. When loaded, almost all metals show elastic behavior; when subjected to higher loads, plastic deformation occurs, the tech- 30

32 plastic 2 niche is used for forming, z. B. rolling, forging, pressing, drawing and the like. In the door industry, steel and aluminum are mainly used, and more rarely bronze, especially for frames, profiles or fittings, reinforcements or vapor barriers. The other metals such as brass, silver and gold are mostly used in fittings and as decorative decorations. Aluminum Aluminum is a silver-white, very flexible light metal with the chemical symbol Al. Aluminum has a high electrical conductivity and, thanks to various alloy additives, it has very good mechanical properties. In addition, aluminum is insensitive to oxygen and moisture, as it forms a thin protective oxide layer on the surface. It is therefore ideal for the use of doors outdoors. In the outside area, frame doors are only used with thermally insulated composite profiles. Aluminum is used as a pure or alloyed material, especially in vehicle and aircraft construction, in the electrical industry and in construction. In the door industry, as shown in Chapter 1, Figure 1.7, external doors made of aluminum have a market share of around 32%. In the commercial area of ​​the entire door market, door elements made of aluminum are even more strongly represented. The most frequently used alloys in construction for extruded profiles are EN AW-6060 and EN AW. The mechanical characteristics of these and other alloys can be found in DIN EN 755 2:. In addition, due to its good processing properties and high vapor diffusion resistance, aluminum is particularly suitable as a vapor barrier with the usual thicknesses of 0.2 mm to a maximum of 0.5 mm (optimum depending on the structural design between 0.2 0.3 mm) Steel is the term used for all iron produced by ironworks, unalloyed or alloyed with a wide variety of elements with a carbon content below 2%, which can be forged or rolled without special preparation. By changing the alloy composition, i. H. By changing the carbon content or structure and by adding other elements (especially metals), the properties can be varied over a wide range. If the carbon content exceeds 2.06%, the steel becomes brittle and loses its ductility and is known as cast iron or pig iron. If the steel is alloyed with other elements in addition to carbon in certain percentages, it is called alloyed steel (e.g. chrome steel, manganese steel, nickel steel). If an alloy element exceeds the average content of 5 percent by mass, one speaks of high-alloy steels. In DIN EN 10020: a distinction is made between the main quality classes: unalloyed steels (unalloyed quality steels, unalloyed stainless steels) stainless steels (mass fraction 10.5% chromium and max. 1.2% carbon) other alloyed steels and alloyed stainless steels. The most frequently used steels / structural steels in construction are S235 (formerly ST 37) and S355 (formerly ST 52). The mechanical characteristics of these and other steels can be found in DIN EN: In the production of doors, steel is used in the areas of profiles, reinforcements, fittings, i.e. functional parts (then mostly stainless steel) and accessories. So-called steel doors or sheet steel doors are used both for doors with special functions, such as fire protection doors and burglar-resistant doors with a high resistance class, as well as for interior doors, usually coated or foiled in the usual wood structure patterns. 2.3 Plastic Plastic is a collective term for materials made from organic compounds with the basic element carbon. Crude oil, natural gas or coal are used as starting materials. By means of various processes (polymerization, polycondensation, polyaddition), long-chain molecules (macromolecules) with different structures are built up from simple polymers. By adding certain additives, such as fillers (e.g. chalk), reinforcing fibers (e.g. carbon fibers) 31

33 2 Materials Packaging (4,125 kt) Building & Construction (2,756 kt), 88 million t 35% 23% Fig. 2.5 Consumption of plastic materials in 2014 [Source: PlasticEurope »Economic data and charts on the plastics market in Germany as of September 2014 «] Automotive (1,215 kt) 10% E & E (725 kt) 6% Others (3,085 kt) 26% PE-LD; -LLD PE-LD; -MD PS + EPS PP PVC PET ABS, ASA SAN PMMA PA PCS Other Engin. PUR Other Plastics or stabilizers (e.g. heat stabilizers), the properties of plastics can be varied widely. The most important properties include the low density, the low thermal conductivity, the very good chemical resistance and the electrical insulation. Depending on the structure of the polymers, a distinction is made between three types: Thermosets, thermoplastics and elastomers. Thermosets consist of closely-knit, highly branched and cross-linked polymers with the following properties: hard at room temperature, not meltable, not swellable, not soluble. Typical thermosets are phenolic and melamine resins, which, among other things, z. B. be used in the production of laminates (see Chapter 2.1.2) Thermoplastics Thermoplastics consist of unbranched and slightly branched polymers with the following properties: soft to hard, meltable, soluble at room temperature. Typical thermoplastics are polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). PVC is used for sealing profiles, see chapter Elastomers Elastomers consist of wide-meshed, branched and weakly cross-linked polymers with the following properties: elastic, soft, non-meltable, swellable, non-soluble at room temperature. Typical elastomers are natural rubber (NR), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) and ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM). EPDM is used for sealing profiles, see Chapter 10. In the door industry, plastics are used in many areas, e.g. B. as profile material for framed doors, mostly modified polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and as filling material, mostly polyurethane foams (PU) also in combination as sandwich elements. They are used in the field of fittings technology, mostly polyamides (PA), and especially in the field of coatings and seals. Glass structures with polycarbonate panes (PC) are used for security doors, especially for the higher requirements RC 5 and RC 6. Well-known trade names are Makrolon and Lexan. Compared to other transparent thermoplastics, this thermoplastic has the highest 32

34 Glass 2 impact strength and is characterized by its usability in large temperature ranges (90 C to +135 C). Polycarbonate is not to be confused with acrylic glass (PMMA = polymethyl methacrylate), especially known under the trade name Plexiglas. Glass structures with polycarbonate panes have two decisive advantages over comparable panes with a film composite. On the one hand, they only weigh about half the weight and, on the other hand, they are about half the thickness of the pane with comparable resistance, be it against penetration, bullet resistance or explosion resistance. The bonding is problematic, however, so that complaints about delamination are repeated and the technically demanding bonding is also clearly reflected in the price. The most common plastic used in construction for profiles is hard PVC / PVC-U (U = unplasticized). This is regulated in DIN EN 12608: Figure 2.5 from PlasticEurope (Association of Plastic Producers) from 2014 provides an overview of the consumption of other plastic materials and their areas of application. 2.4 Glass Glass is an inorganic, solid and brittle material which, however, for the most part has a non-crystalline (amorphous) structure like a liquid. This is why one speaks of a supercooled melt. This material does not have a defined melting point, but a transition area from solid to viscous, which is referred to as the transformation temperature T G. Glass has a low thermal conductivity and a high electrical resistance. The manufacturing process commonly used today is the float process. The casting process is still used for glasses with wire inlay or ornamental glasses. The main components of glass are quartz sand, lime and soda. The addition of various oxides results in a multitude of compositions. Soda-lime silicate glass The most important glass for technical applications is soda-lime silicate glass. The physical and mechanical properties according to DIN EN 572-1: are shown in Table 2.7. This glass is often used for panels in the area of ​​doors. In contrast to the commercial and public sector, building law does not require safety glazing for doors with glass panels (light cutouts) in residential construction. It is nevertheless recommended to use safety glass there in order to minimize or exclude a potential risk of injury. For door elements with glass panels, the panes of which should not splinter, as well as door elements with special requirements, such as B.burglar-resistant doors, glass products in the form of safety glazing are used. This group of glasses includes toughened safety glass (ESG), partially toughened glass (TVG) and laminated safety glass (VSG) toughened safety glass (ESG and ESG-H) toughened safety glass (ESG) according to DIN EN: is thermally toughened during the manufacturing process, in which the surface layer cools down quickly becomes. The slower cooling of the still much warmer core layer creates tensile stresses in this layer and compressive stresses in the surface layer (external compressive stress, internal tensile stress). If the glass breaks, the pane disintegrates into small, cube-shaped fragments, there are no sharp-edged splinters. However, no post-treatment such as B. Edge processing or drilling possible. ESG panes are used in particular where there are large temperature fluctuations or where safety against the risk of injury is required. Table 2.8 shows the physical and mechanical properties according to the above-mentioned standard for tempered glass. In tempered glass, due to the material and manufacturing process, nickel sulphide inclusions (NiS) can occur, which can lead to spontaneous breakage despite the hot storage test according to DIN: Depending on the intended use, we therefore recommend the use of ESG-H (toughened safety glass with hot storage test). Tempered glass is subjected to a heat treatment in a temperature range of 280 C to 320 C for at least four hours in a special heat soak oven. This is intended to reduce the residual risk of a spontaneous break through 33

35 2 Materials Property Symbol DIN EN 572-1: Density (at 18 C) ρ 2500 kg / m 3 Hardness (Knopp according to ISO 9385) HK 0.1 / 20 6 GPa E-module (modulus of elasticity) E Pa Poisson's ratio µ 0, 2 Specific heat capacity cp 0. J / (kgK) nominal value mean coefficient of linear expansion between 20 C and 300 C Resistance to temperature differences and sudden temperature changes α / KK recognized value, depending on edge quality and type of glass Thermal conductivity λ 1 W / (mK) mean refractive index in the visible area (at 589.3 nm) n 1.5 emissivity (corrected) ε 0.837 Characteristic bending stiffness a) 45 MPa a) The determination of the bending stiffness of glass is regulated in the standard DIN EN: and its parts. According to the Building Regulations List A, Part 1, Annex 11.5 (version October 6, 2015), 45 N / mm 2 (= MPa) are required for float glass, which must be proven by the manufacturer's declaration. Tab. 2.7 Properties of soda-lime-silicate glass [Source: own illustration based on Table 1, DIN EN 572-2:] Glass type DIN EN: Minimum value of characteristic flexural strength Float glass: clear, colored, or coated lined float glass lined surface subjected to tensile stress . B. Ornamental glass, drawn flat glass Resistance to temperature differences and sudden temperature changes 120 N / mm 2 75 N / mm 2 90 N / mm K recognized value, depending on the edge quality and type of glass Tab. 2.8 Properties of toughened safety glass (ESG) [Source: own illustration in Based on Table 11, DIN EN:] nickel sulfide inclusions are reduced. This hot storage test is regulated in accordance with the Building Regulations List A Part 1 Annex (version October 6, 2015) Partially toughened glass (TVG) Partially toughened glass (TVG) according to DIN EN: is thermally toughened in the same way as single-pane safety glass (ESG). The difference is that a lower compressive stress is generated than with ESG, but compared to non-toughened glass, increased flexural rigidity and thermal shock resistance is achieved. TVG can be manufactured up to a glass thickness of approx. 8 mm. The main difference is in the broken glass, TVG does not break like ESG, but is comparable to float glass in terms of breakage. Table 2.9 shows the physical and mechanical properties according to the above-mentioned standard for TVG. TVG is usually only used as laminated safety glass (VSG) consisting of two glass panels made of TVG in order to be able to guarantee the remaining load-bearing capacity of the glazing. In general, it must be noted with all thermally toughened glasses that, due to the transport on roller conveyors, during the toughening process, the glass surface, 34

36 Glass 2 Glass type DIN EN: Minimum value of characteristic flexural strength Float glass: clear, colored, or coated lined float glass lined surface subject to tensile stress. B. Ornamental glass, drawn flat glass Resistance to temperature differences and sudden temperature changes 70 N / mm 2 45 N / mm 2 55 N / mm K recognized value, depending on the edge quality and type of glass Tab. 2.9 Properties of partially toughened glass (TVG) [Source: own illustration based on Table 8, DIN EN:] Type of glass Uncoated float glass according to EN and Maximum permissible value of warpage General warpage mm / m 3.0 0.3 Other a) 4.0 0.5 Roller Wave mm a) Glass to be lined, its If the surface is not completely covered, the manufacturer should be consulted. Tab Maximum permissible values ​​for general warpage and warpage caused by roller waves in the case of horizontally toughened glass [source: DIN EN:, Table 4, slightly modified by the author] leading to so-called roller waves. This leads to deviations in planarity, especially with thin glasses. Depending on the incidence of light, these become visible due to the birefringence through spots or colored stripes (iridescence). They are especially highlighted by the reflection (reflection) of the blue sky and are considered defects. According to DIN EN: the maximum values ​​shown in table 2.10 are permissible Laminated safety glass (VSG) Laminated safety glass (VSG) according to DIN EN ISO: is a glass composite consisting of at least two glass panels with plastic glazing material in between, e.g. B. polyethylene (PE) or polyvinyl butyral film (PVB). According to the Building Regulations List A Part 1 Annex 11.8 (version October 6, 2015), additional requirements are placed on the PVB film. These elastic and tear-resistant high-polymer films are used to ensure that if the panes break, the fragments stick to the film and the risk of cuts and stab wounds can be minimized. In addition, a residual load-bearing capacity of the glazing is made possible. Typical applications of laminated safety glass are e.g. B. Overhead glazing, anti-fall and walk-on glazing. These are regulated in the standard series of DIN 18008 »Glass in Building Design and Construction Rules« with the following parts: DIN: »Terms and general principles« DIN: »Linearly mounted glazing« (formerly TRLV) DIN: »Pointed mounted glazing« (formerly TRPV) DIN: "Additional requirements for glazing to prevent falls" (formerly TRAV) DIN: "Additional requirements for walk-on glazing" DIN: Draft "Additional requirements for glazing that can be walked on for maintenance measures and for fall-through-proof glazing" Depending on the intermediate layer or the composite carrier in between, the properties of the glazing and the requirements imposed on it, such as B. Sound insulation, through the use of PVB sound insulation films (see Chapter 13) Protection against burglary, through the use of PC panes (see Chapter 14) Fire and smoke protection through the use of borosilicate glass with a fire protection layer (see Chapter 15) 35

37 2 Materials Bullet resistance and explosion resistance as well as radiation protection can be achieved through the use of radiation protection glasses and PC panes (see Chapter 16). For the statics, however, the intermediate layer does not take on any effective function (loose bond). If the shear modulus of the composite beam is known, the static behavior can be calculated using the composite theory, but depends, among other things, on the duration of the load and the temperature Multi-pane insulating glass (MIG) Multi-pane insulating glass (MIG) according to DIN EN: is one of at least two Glass panes, with space between panes (cavity), composite component, the edge bond with spacers being hermetically sealed by a seal. The space between the panes is usually filled with an inert gas, usually argon (Ar). The greatest advantage of multi-pane insulating glass compared to single-pane glazing is its thermal and sound insulation. A further improvement in thermal protection can be achieved with quadruple insulating glass, but this cannot be described as standard at the moment. The structure is similar to that of triple insulating glass. An additional pane is inserted in the middle of the glazing structure, so that an additional space between the panes is created. The technical properties of the glazing can be influenced depending on the requirements by using different glazing structures with panes of different thickness and / or laminated safety glass and different spaces between the panes (SZR) with thermally improved spacers or fillings with other noble gases. A wide variety of VSG panes with a wide variety of PVB sound insulation films are used here, especially in sound insulation. For thermal protection, special thermal insulation glasses with low-E coatings are often used to reduce the heat transport through radiation. Vacuum insulating glass (VIG) Another development in the glass industry is vacuum insulating glass (VIG). There is a vacuum in the much smaller space between the panes (SDR) instead of a noble gas. Two float glasses (e.g. 4 mm) are connected to one another via an elastic edge bond that can compensate for the thermal change in length. In addition, there are very small supports (approx. 0.2 0.5 mm) in a narrow grid (approx. Mm mm) in the space in order to keep the distance and not to be pressed together under the influence of atmospheric pressure. If you look at the development from double insulating glass to triple insulating glass, the system strengths have been adapted and increased in favor of better properties of thermal and sound insulation. When using VIG, on the other hand, the system strengths can be reduced again. In addition, the weight is drastically reduced, which in turn can have an impact on the hardware technology. This type of glazing is currently used primarily in monument protection and the renovation of old buildings. Until a corresponding product standard is published, the further field of application of vacuum insulating glass (VIG) will tend to be limited and be more suitable for special solutions and special cases. Supports in a uniform grid to keep distance Float glass (e.g. 4 mm) Functional layer (e.g. Low-e) Supports in a uniform grid to keep distance Edge bond (gas-tight, elastic) to compensate for changes in length due to temperature fluctuations Fig.2.6 Basic structure of vacuum insulating glass (VIG) 36