What were the currencies in medieval England

Medieval currencies

The only common coin of the early and early European Middle Ages was that Denarius or penny or as half denarius of Obol. Only at the end of the 13th century Due to the more intensive trade, another currency was required, as these relatively small coins meant that a larger sum could hardly be transported. Among other things, this led to a resumption of gold minting, especially with the introduction of the "Florentine gold guilder“In the 13th century and the Venetian ducats or Zecchine (Ducat, from the inscription: “sit tibi Christe datus quem tu regis iste ducatus", Or from the Venetian mint" Zecca "or" Zecci ").

A groundbreaking development was in the 14th century. the introduction of the Rhenish gold gulden through the establishment of the "Rheinische Münzverein" in 1386 under the then Archbishop of Cologne Friedrich von Saar Werden (1371-1414). Under Friedrich alone, 44 different types of embossing are known, but all of them have a uniform weight of around 3.5 g. This was only topped by his successor Dietrich von Moers (1414-1463) with 72 variants.

At the end of the 13th and beginning of the 14th century, however, “new” silver coins also appeared, such as sterling, Schilling / double schilling, White pfennig (Albus or Witten), Tournoses (after the introduced in French Tours Gros Tournois), the forerunner of the introduced in Bohemia around 1300 Grossus(Groschen, Großgroschen).

Other early coins were that Brighter (named after its first minting place Schwäbisch Hall) or the cruiser which was minted for the first time in Merano (named after the cross on the coin).
The Valleys is by the way a product of the early modern era and etymologically comes from the Joachimsthal region.

The terms mark and lb Interestingly, they weren't originally currencies, but Weight units:

Originally matched a lb silver 240 Pennies or 20 Schillings, one mark were 192 Pennies or 16 Shillings. But to go into this further in depth would go beyond the scope.
Unfortunately, the weight designations mark and pound were no longer uniform over time and depending on the region. In the Rhineland in the 12th century, for example, 1 mark = 12 shillings or 144 pfennigs.
The value ratio between gold and silver coins fluctuated in the same way: In Westphalia a guilder was worth 12 shillings in 1423, 16 shillings in 1471, 24 shillings in 1484 and 15 shillings in 1491.

For comparison: the famous Schedelsche Weltchronik cost 1509:

3-3.5 guilders for an unbound and uncolored edition

5 guilders for a hardback edition

8 guilders for a bound and colored copy.

To illustrate this, I have photos of denarii from the 11th to 13th centuries, Rhenish guilders from the 14th and 15th centuries, and a large penny from the 14th century. (Archbishop Heinrich von Virneburg) and a tournosis of the 14th century (Archbishop Walram von Jülich) attached.

Sources: A.v.Brandt: Tool of the Historian, Kohlhammer Verlag; P.Berghaus: Westphalian coin history of the Middle Ages, Westphalian State Museum Münster; Auction catalog Münz Zentrum Köln: Meyer-Coloniensis coin collection; W.Grasser: Münzen, Mosaik Verlag;