What is the resemblance between dream and destiny

The Dream in Newer Russian Poetry

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3.1 Biographical

Ol’ga Sedakova (* 1949) is one of the Russian poets of the second half of the 20th century who enjoy the status of a modern classic. Her works were not published at the time of the Soviet Union because the author opposed the prevailing literary Soviet realism and rationalism with religious-mystical poetry and thus consciously blocked access to the official literary scene.169 Even if she has been writing poetry since the early 1960s and distributed her works in the so-called "samizdat" [self-published] in the literary underground, the first publication took place in 1986, in the so-called "tamizdat" [foreign publisher] in Paris. Her works have also been printed in Russia since 1991.170

3.2 Literary characteristics

In terms of intellectual history, Sedakova's poetry is in the tradition of Russian philosophy of the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century until 1917, represented by thinkers such as Vladimir Solov'ev, Sergej Bulgakov and Nikolaj Berdjaev. 171 Her literary roots lie in the so-called "Silver Age" and especially the Russian avant-garde. In particular, it ties in with the work of such important poets of that time as Osip Mandel’štam, Anna Achmatova or Velimir Chlebnikov.172 Sedakova has also received a large number of Western European poets from different epochs and has translated many of them into Russian himself. To the authors, who particularly influenced her and who she translated. ← 105 | 106 → den, include Carroll, T. S. Eliot, Rilke, Dante, Horaz, Petrarca and others. m.173 Within the underground poetry, Sedakova is one of the religious and mystical authors. Research assigns them to metaphysical poetry in general and specifically to the direction of “metarealism ”.174 Metarealism uses“ eternal ”motifs or archetypes such as love, death, world etc. and, according to the namesake of the direction, Michail Ėpštejn, is characterized by the Use of a new style figure, the "Metabola". Ėpštejn reinterprets the ancient term as a pictorial figure that unites rhetorical features of metaphor and metonymy by combining two unrelated pictorial components into a chain through a mediator link that is related to them.175 Dealing with different dimensions of being in metarealism This presupposes that, in contrast to symbolism, for example, these exist intertwined and cannot be separated from one another.176

Sedakova's works are distinguished in terms of linguistic and stylistic clarity, depersonalization and the renunciation of lyrical emotionality.177 In terms of content, her poetry is often referred to as religious, mystical or metaphysical, 178 which is related to the use of corresponding motifs in her works. In addition, mythological and folk figures and motifs can often be found. It should be noted, however, that the reference to religion in Sedakova's poetry does not have an instructive character, but rather is to be understood as a form of protest and resistance against Soviet reality; it develops a kind of “counter-world” with as few contact zones as possible with the Soviet language and the reality of life.179 Sedakova's conception of religiosity is individualistic 107 → Characteristics and implies one's own way of dealing with the transcendent in the medium of poetry, freed from religious practices and dogmas. For her, poetry is a way of not only addressing religious and mystical experiences, but also of practicing and evoking them in the form of poetry. 180

Perhaps the most important characteristic of Sedakova's work is the concern to make visible the presence and accessibility of a spiritual-divine world within earthly consciousness and the ordinary world.181 As a medium of connection, dream and sleep often appear in her poems; other visually based states of consciousness such as B. the vision (videnie) or the daydream (mečta), on the other hand, rarely occur. The lexemes “dream” (son, snovidenie) and “sleep” (son) (in Russian “son” is polysemous) are used in such a way that they make clear a different degree of subjectivity of the event: The dream allows an intersubjective communication of its contents to, the sleep, on the other hand, remains centered on the subject and eludes other figures and instances of the text as well as the usual consciousness of the subject himself.

3.3 Research status

In literary research, the dream was recognized as an important part of Sedakova's poetic world.182 It is all the more astonishing that a systematic investigation of the meaning of the dream in Sedakova's work and for her poetics has so far been pending. The multifunctionality and the wealth of intertextual contexts are unexplored. There is even a lack of studies that specifically deal with selected aspects of this problem. In previous research, dream poems are at best considered selectively within the framework of a differently oriented research concept, whereby only individual poetic texts are used. Maria Khotimsky mentions ← 107 | 108 → For example, the dream as an important characteristic of Sedakova's work, but does not go into it in detail.183 Stephanie Sandler refers to the dream poem "Nadpis'" and uses the text as a projection surface for the investigation of visuality in Sedakova's poetry.184 Natalija Medvedeva offers a similar connection between the act of seeing and the dream in the most extensive study to date of Sedakova's work.185 Here, too, the poetic dream experience is only assigned a marginal function, and the author does not establish any connection with a oneiric concept. Henrieke Stahl goes into depth for the first time on the meaning of lyrical dream experiences in Sedakova's work and presents them as part of a metaphysical-poetic overall form of her poetics. The dream in her work is worked out as a mediation between two (conscious) states of being, which in the context of the meaning is religious -mystical experience is interpreted. Steel also counts the dream as one of the most important motifs in Sedakova's work. 186

According to Sedakova's own statements, the importance of dreams as a poetic means of expression is anchored biographically. Sedakova herself often emphasizes the importance, intensity and relation to reality of dreams.187 The dream experiences, as can be seen from the quotation in footnote 186, are closely related to the author’s childhood or childhood memories and experiences.

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3.4 Procedure

The motif of the dream is present in all phases of the work of Ol'ga Sedakova's poetic oeuvre and, together with some other motifs (e.g. childhood, memory, biblical and mythological figures) or opposing pairs of motifs (house-garden, desert-garden, life- Death, old child, brightness and darkness) a basic framework of continuously used poetic elements that are charged with important functions and meanings. The frequency of use of these bearers of meaning and also their function and meaning change over time and fluctuate from one collection of poems to the other. The reason for this can be identified as the fact that Sedakova worked on several thematically differently oriented collections of poetry at the same time, especially in her middle phase of work between 1978 and 1982, and accordingly resorted to different motifs.

The intensity of the insertion of the dream motif also changes. While dream poems are given enormous conceptual, poetic and functional weight in some volumes of poetry, the same motif is underrepresented not only quantitatively but also qualitatively in others. For this reason, an examination of the number of dream poems in comparison to the total number of poems in the respective volume of poems makes little sense for the determination of a development pattern in the use of the motif. Nevertheless, creative periods can be recognized in which the dream motif is used more often than in others, whereby the number of poems with a qualitatively large meaning of the dream is higher. In order to reconstruct the relation between quantity and importance of the dream poems and to assign work phases accordingly, it is first necessary to develop categories that can reflect the presence of the dream. The following two degrees of intensity of the dream motif have proven to be useful for the investigation of Sedakova's poetic work:

  1. Poems where the thematic focus is clearly on the dream, d. H. those that are designed as a dream description or memory. In these works i. d. Usually a broad spectrum of poetic and motivic characteristics of the dream is covered, whereby the motif as such plays an essential role for the conceptual representation of the poem.
  2. Poems in which the dream motif is of secondary importance. The dream is integrated into the lyrical world as part of a broader poetic concept, but without showing narrative elements or meaning for the structure of the poem.

The dream poems in Sedakova's work are therefore examined in a chronological order. First of all, the quantitative development of the motif in the various creative phases should be determined. For this purpose, every collection of poems is examined from the point of view of oneirian writing ← 109 | 110 → briefly outlined in order to then select the most important dream poems, i.e. poems of the first category. The subsequent qualitative investigation focuses on the content-related and formal emphasis of the poetic processing of the dream motif: Which thematic aspects characterize the poetic dream representation and what peculiarities of the linguistic and stylistic design of the dream representation exist? The central question of this empirically oriented part is to identify the poetic functions of dreams. It will have to be determined whether the different manifestations of the dreams show a commonality in chronological terms or whether functional shifts occur in the course of time. In order to work out continuities and functional shifts, selected dream poems are examined in more detail. Poems are analyzed in which the oneirical motif and the associated artistic interventions are particularly pronounced and which can therefore be regarded as representative.

3.5. Development of the dream motif in Sedakova's work phases

Ol’ga Sedakova began writing poetry at school.188 Her poetic activity spanned almost three decades, with almost no new poems published as of 2010. Your poetic work can be chronologically z. Sometimes difficult to systematize, especially in the period 1978–1983, when she was working on five volumes of poetry at the same time, each of which has a different size, a different thematic focus and also diverging final dates.

A dating of the poems within the respective volume is rarely available. Probably for this reason, no chronological examination of their works has been carried out in the previous research. The chronological order proposed here follows the information provided by the author in her 2010 edition, which defines a sequence of the five volumes. 189

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The only criterion chosen for the periodization proposed here is the use of the dream or sleep motif in the various collections of poems in order to reveal a chronological pattern in dealing with this motif.

The first volume of poems "Iz rannich stichov" (1965–76 ["From the early poems"]) contains a total of 32 poems, 9 of which have a dream motif, whereby in 4 of these poems the dream is of particular importance in terms of content and concept (" Yes imja tvoe otložu ”,“ Skazočka ”,“ Min'ona ”and“ Tri bogini ”).

The second volume of poetry “Dikij šipovnik. Legendy i fantazii ”(1978 [“ The wild dog rose. Legends and fantasies ”]) is the most extensive of the five books with 57 poems, arranged in three parts. In this volume 6 poems are to be classified in the 1st category (see above) ("Proščanie", "Mne často snitsja smert 'i predlagaet ...", "Legenda desjataja", "Alatyr'", "Skazka" and "Snovidec"), The last 4 poems mentioned are in the third part of the volume.

In 1978 work began on “Tristan i Izol’da” [“Tristan and Isolde”], which continued until 1982. This relatively small volume contains 15 poems. Three of them contain the dream motif, with only one poem dealing intensively with it (“Smelyj rybak”).

1980–81 he created “Starye pesni” [“Old Songs”], a volume of poems divided into 3 volumes (tetradi), in which themes of faith, predestination and life and death are particularly well represented.190 Out of a total of 39 poems contain 6 the motif of the dream, 4 of which stand out from the others due to the special weight given to the dream ("Detstvo", "Kolybel'naja", "Son" and "Drugaja kolybel'naja").

In “Vorota. Okna. Arki "[" Wickets. Window. Arches ”] from the years 1979–83, the dream remains a present poetic means of expression in 12 of a total of 24 poems. The intensity of the meaning of the motif, however, decreases sharply. Here also some thematic differences compared to earlier works and an increasingly negative evaluation of the dream become apparent. This can be illustrated by the poems “Gornaja oda”, “Sel’skoe kladbišče” and “Skazka, v kotoroj počti ničego ne proizchodit”.

At the same time, in the period 1979–82, two short collections of poetry were created in which the dream motif was clearly less pronounced. “Stansy v manere Aleksandra Popa” (1979–1980 [“Punching in the manner of Alexander Pope”]) contains 5 poems, with the dream in a secondary function in 3 of them. "Stely i nadpisi" (1982 ["Steles and Inscriptions"]) contains only one of the 7 poems in this volume, the last one ("Nadpis"), which can be identified as a dream poem, also ← 111 | 112 → if the dream experience is held in a limbo between dream and reality, which is typical for Sedakova.

In the short cycle “Jamby” (1984–85 [“Jamben”]) the dream motif is completely absent. All other volumes of poetry “Kitajskoe putešestvie” (1986 [“The trip to China”]), “Nedopisannaja kniga” (1990–2000 [“The unfinished book”]), “Večernjaja pesnja” (1996–2005 [“Evening song”]), “ Ėlegii ”(1987–2004 [“ Elegien ”]) and“ Načalo knigi ”(without dating [“ beginning of the book ”]) each contain only one poem in which the dream motif occurs, and only in its supporting function. The 14th poem from the volume “Kitajskoe putešestvie” is an exception: “Flejte otvečaet flejta”.

In summary, it can be stated that the dream motif is present in almost all of Sedakova's poetry collections, whereby three phases of its use can be observed. In the first phase from 1965 to 1981, which includes the poetry collections “Iz rannich stichov”, “Dikij šipovnik” and “Starye pesni”, the dream is so present in the poems both qualitatively and quantitatively that it has become one of the main topoi in the The work of the author. The second phase from around 1981 to 1986 continues with the volumes of poetry and cycles “Tristan i Izol’da”, “Vorota. Okna. Arki ”,“ Stansy v manere Aleksandra Popa ”,“ Stely i nadpisi ”and“ Kitajskoe putešestvie ”are signs of turning away from this motif. In the third phase from 1986 to the present day, the dream loses its initially constitutive character for Sedakova's poetry. The artistic staging of the dream also changes significantly: This more statistical and descriptive representation of the development of the dream motif corresponds to a shift on the functional level, as will be shown in the following individual studies (see below. Chapters 3.7 - 3.13.).

3.6 The dream as a poetic means of expression in Sedakova's lyrical work

Applying the typology of Kreuzer it follows that the manifestations of the dream in the work of Sedakovas i. d. R.are either clearly marked or, on the contrary, indicate a state in which no precise boundary between dream and waking world can be established.191 This contrary disposition manifests itself in two different ← 112 | 113 → Types of dream reproduction: While the marked dreams are usually presented in the form of a dream memory of the waking lyrical ego and subjectivity is presented as the narrative framework of the dreams, the unmarked dreams appear in poems that have several characters or instances to which the possible Dream experience can be assigned.

The dream in Ol’ga Sedakova's poems can be seen as a constant in her oeuvre, not only because of the spread of the motif, but also with regard to the content and poetic similarities that this motif permanently exhibits. Even if the dream is used with particular intensity in the early works, it is also occasionally represented in later works, without, however, being ascribed such a fundamental functional meaning as is the case in the earlier collections of poetry. An implicit system of the poetic dream can be recognized, which is the basis of all dream representations. Due to the thematic orientation of the dreams, these commonalities extend through the poetic functions of the dream productions to individual, repetitive language elements that can be classified as dream-typical due to their contextualization within the framework of the dream poems. Another thing that Sedakova's oneiric texts have in common is the strict separation between dream and sleep. Her work deals with two fundamentally different states, which are oriented differently in their metaphysical function. The dream mostly occurs in childhood, while the mystical experiences in adults take place in sleep, without the possibility of describing them.

In the following, some of the most important thematic focal points, which the dream motif forms in Sedakova's lyrical work, are elaborated and examined for their poetic functions. For each focus and its functions, a central poem is brought into focus as a representative example. In addition, other texts are also used to illustrate different facets of the respective focus.

3.7 The dream as a connection between childhood and adulthood

Among Sedakova's poems, the most common form of dream representation is tied to childhood. Two forms of representation of the childhood dream can be differentiated. In the first case, the dream is not linked to the lyrical self. It is then a matter of depicting a dream state before going to sleep, with another figure next to the child, ← 113 | 114 → i. d. R. a parent in whom dream events are involved; the place of the lyrical ego is taken by a narrative subject in the third person. Such poems can be formally assigned to the genre of the lullaby; For example, they contain an invitation to a child to sleep, create a calm, intimate atmosphere and focus on the parent-child relationship. While the parent figure anticipates the dream content and reproduces it in the form of a lullaby, the child mostly remains in the passive role of the recipient. Parents and children share a dream story. The second case is about a memory of the (adult) lyrical ego of a dream from childhood, which is reflected from the distance of time and thus also filled with foreign content.

These two forms of dream representation - lullaby and remembered childhood dream - each have different functions. In the case of lullabies, the dream is a statement about fate, which is addressed through the parental narrative to both characters involved (the parent himself and the child). The monologue at the child's bed contains, on the one hand, the adult's reflection on their own life, and, on the other hand, a prediction about the child's life and thus connects the fate of the two characters. The remembered childhood dream, on the other hand, is tied to a lyrical self and has mystical themes and functions.

3.7.1.Sedakova's lullabies: dream as imagination of fate

In Ol’ga Sedakova's lyrical work there are several poems that can be classified as lullabies.192 What they have in common is the connection between the dream motif and statements about fate. A set of characteristics can be found in these poems which has proven to be constant in terms of structure and content.

The lullabies are written in a monologue that is addressed to the child and only spoken by one parent. This creates a conversation situation that is built up by two figures: the child as recipient and a parent who, with a few exceptions, can be clearly identified as mother or father.193 The figure of the child to whom the song is dedicated enters the Background, while the figure of the mother or the father takes on the actual subject role: it gives the content ← 114 | 115 → of the dream and makes statements about the past, present and future from your perspective. These statements concern the question of fate.

The objectification of the child, who is supposed to include what has been said in his dream, is linguistically reinforced by addressing the parent figure, who addresses him in the imperative verb mode. The repetitive verbs “spi” and “usni” [sleep, or sleep in] are not only a common characteristic of Sedakova's lullabies, but also create a very calm, almost meditative atmosphere within the context of the repetition within the individual poems the dream contents are given. The child thus becomes a projection surface for the statements of the parent figure, while the parent figure reflects on its own life through the imagined dream content.

The function of the dream as a prediction of fate in the form of a lullaby can be exemplified by the poem “Tri bogini” [“Three Goddesses”]. The poem from 1975 is one of Sedakova's early works, which were included in the volume of poetry "Iz rannich stichov" ["From the early poems"]. As is often the case in Sedakova's poems, the text alludes to other literary works and mythological figures 194 who help determine understanding. Central here are the three goddesses of the title, which can be identified as Moiren and thus as goddesses of fate:

Tri bogini

1 Po strane davnoprošedšej

chodit pamjat i ne znaet,

kem nazvat’sja, kak vinit’sja

i v kakuju dver ’stučat’ ...

5 Spit rebenok v kolybeli

perstoj, ivovoj, pletenoj,

i ne spit ego otec.

Govorit on: "Slušaj, Chloja,

snitsja mne ili ne snitsja?

10 Trech sidelok neizvestnych

Vižu ja nad kolybel’ju,

vižu jasno, kak tebja ”.

I odna gljadit otkryto,

i glaza ee svetlee,

15 čem bescennoe oruž’e.

U drugoj živaja vlaga

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meždu vekami: takaja

v rodnike, v ovrage tajnom,

gde, sud’by svoej ne znaja,

20 p’et podsležennyj olen ’.

Tret’ja glaz ne podnimaet,

nepokrytaja, kak roza.

Serdce, serdce, čto s toboj?

Serdce, ili ty zabylo,

25 kak tebja v zagrobnyj pogreb

uvodili, i v slezach

ty tverdilo: esli snova

pozovut menja rodit’sja,

yes voz’mu sud’bu druguju.

30 Pust ’ona projdet v rabotach

i v pastušeskoj odežde.

Pust ’ujdet ona bez boli,

kak ulybka s gub uchodit ...

Dlja čego že ty veliš ’,

35 čtob rebenok zasmejalsja

i našel glazami tret’ju

i slova progovoril:

Yes tebe choču služit ’,

Zolotaja Afrodita! 195

Three goddesses

1 Through a land long gone

memory wanders and doesn't know

what to call it, what guilt it should accuse itself of

and on which door there should be a knock ...

5 There is a child sleeping in the cradle,

it is colorful, woven from willow,

and his father is not sleeping.

He says: "Listen, Chloja,

is it dreaming or not?

10 Three unknown nannies

I see over the cradle

I see them as clearly as you ”.

And one looks open

and her eyes are brighter

15 as the most precious weapons.

The other has living moisture

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between the eyelids: one of those

in the spring, in the secret gorge,

where, not knowing his fate,

20 the pursued stag drinks.

The third one doesn't look up

uncovered like a rose.

Heart, heart, what about you

Heart, or have you forgotten

25 like you in the cellar of the afterlife

and how you in tears

have assured: If I do again

being called to birth

I'll choose a different fate

30 Leave it in the works

and pass away in shepherd's garb.

Let it pass without pain

how the smile fades from the lips ...

Why do you command

35 that the child laughs

and see the third with the eyes,

and pronounce the words:

I want to serve you

golden Aphrodite!