# Is electromagnetism part of classical mechanics

## Physics compact 8, special issue

32 Solutions 23.4 Possible selection criteria for theories: 1) Simplicity (hollow world: physical laws depend on the place) 2) more comprehensive (a comprehensive theory with more predictions is easier to refute.) 3) refutability (in the hollow world you are not lost - wonder if you get a different result everywhere - it is more difficult to refute. 4) Symmetry (hollow world: earth and center of the earth are excellent) 23.5 For example: Ptolemy (epicycles) ⇔ Copernicus (earth moves) Coulomb (momentary force) ⇔ Faraday (field term) Classical physics (ether) ⇔ Einstein (theory of relativity) 23.6 Real, (human) independent external world; Causality (cause-and-effect laws); Universality (laws of nature apply always and everywhere) 23.7 Theory: mathematical; Aristotelian logic (terms unambiguous, consistent, math. simple, comprehensive) Experiment: quantifiable (measurable), isolatable, reproducible, intersubjective (“objective” - independent of the measurement) 24.1 Optics: sun, light; Electricity: amber; Magnetism: Magnetic iron stone; Mechanics: simple machines, sky - astronomy; Thermal theory: fire; Atomic Physics: Philosophical Questions 24.2 Optics: Contradiction between wave (Huygens) and particle (Newton), provisionally solved by Young's double slit experiment; Electrodynamics: Coulomb's law, Oersted (electricity generates a magnetic field), Ampere: Every magnetism is electrical; Faraday: magnetic field generates voltage; Maxwell's equations (prediction of electromagnetic waves) - optics becomes part of electromagnetism; Mechanics: Newton's laws and law of gravity - celestial mechanics becomes part of mechanics; Heat theory: Boltzmann: Statistical mechanics (heat is movement of particles) - heat theory becomes part of mechanics 24.3 Mechanics and electrodynamics; Problems: 1) Medium of propagation of light (solved by the theory of relativity) 2) Radiation of the black body (solved by quantum mechanics) 24.4 Mechanics Electrodynamics Quantum mechanics Special relativity theory Quantum field theory General relativity theory Theory of everything 24.5 Cosmology: General relativity theory Astrophysics: General relativity theory Astrophysics: General relativity theory , Quantum Mechanics “Technology”: “Classical Physics” Solid State Physics: Quantum Mechanics Atomic Physics: Quantum Mechanics Particle Physics: Quantum Field Theory 24.6 Aristotles: “Philosophical” view of the world, calm dominated; Newton: Classical mechanics, inertia, conservation laws; Einstein: relativity theory, length contraction, space curvature; Planck: quantum mechanics, quantization; Ferguson: The hitherto unsuccessful search for the “world formula” 24.7 E.g. Kepler or Galileo (earth not center of the universe), Darwin (man not crown of creation), Freud (“I is not master in my own house” - that Subconscious) 24.9 Aristotle: closed, ether; Newton: infinite, absolute; Faraday / Maxwell: infinite, ether; Einstein: relative (length), curved, possibly finite 24.10 Aristotle: infinite; Newton: infinite, absolute; Faraday / Maxwell: infinite; Einstein: relative, curved, possibly finally 11/24 Aristotle: Four elements and the ether; Newton: inertia and gravity; Faraday / Maxwell: gravitation and electromagnetic force, atoms = ether vortex, forces = tensions in the ether; Einstein: force as space-time curvature (geometry) 12/24 Aristotle: not formulated mathematically; Newton: equation of motion and law of gravitation; Faraday / Maxwell: Additionally Coulomb and Lorentz force, Maxwell equations; Einstein: E = mc 0 2; Field equation for the space-time curvature 28.1 Aristotle: ideal curves and bodies; Newton: Same laws for heaven and earth; Faraday / Maxwell: field; Einstein: Principle of relativity, constancy of the speed of light 28.2 Space and time remain in quantum mechanics as in “classical physics”. But matter and light are “quantized” (electrons, protons, photons, ...); Only in quantum field theory is it possible to take into account the special theory of relativity (forces are transmitted through particles); a quantum mechanical theory of gravity (the general theory of relativity) means a quantization of space and time and would be the long-sought “world formula”. 28.6 nuclei: strong interaction - against electrical repulsion; Atoms: electrical attraction versus zero-point energy; Molecules to Berg: electrical attraction against the Pauli principle; Sun: gravity versus nuclear fusion; Solar system to Virgo cluster: gravity versus inertia (rotation); White dwarf: Pauli principle (electrons) against gravitation; Neutron star: Pauli principle (neutrons) against gravitation 28.7 Large insects: passive breathing - trachea must not become too long. 28.8 Large mammals: supplying the body mass with food; small mammals: The radiation heat loss is relatively greater in small animals and must be compensated for. 28.9 Sphere: Gravitation dominates over electromagnetic interaction (= world of structures). Height of a mountain: extra matter on top only melts the base; Gravitation levels the "hump" 28.10 Minimum mass: Gravitation must be able to "start" nuclear fusion; Maximum mass: Radiation pressure destroys the star 28.11 The "Schwarzschild condition" l or R = 2 Gm / c 0 2 28.12 This is the "Compton wavelength": m = h / (mc 0) 28.13 The straight line corresponds to a density of 1000 kg / m 3. 28.14 The neutron stars - they can be viewed as oversized atomic nuclei. 28.15 Mass of the universe: A star has approx. 10 30 kg, a galaxy has 10 11 stars and 10 11 galaxies are known, so M universe = 10 30 · 10 11 · 10 11 kg = 10 52 kg, below Consideration of dark matter ≈ 10 53 kg R = 2 Gm / c 0 2 = 10 26 m - this corresponds roughly to the radius of the Universium: R Universum = 10 26 m For testing purposes only - property of the publisher öbv