What does movement mean that has been rejected as in dispute


The B. religion or Bahāʾītum is one of the 19th century from Iran. Notables Mīrzā Ḥusain ʿAlī Nūrī, called Bahāʾ Allāh (1817 - 1892), established universal religion. Two innerschiit. Movements preceded the B. religion, the Shaikhīya and the Bābitum (Shiites). The Shaikhīs expected the Twelfth Imam to return in 1844. Sayyid ʿAlī Muḥammad Shirāzī declared himself first as the direct mediator or gate (arab. Bāb) of the Mahdi and then as the expected imam himself. The social revolutionary movement he led was brutally opposed by the ruling Qājār dynasty in Iran, who were executed by the Bāb in 1850. After an attempted attack on the Shah, Mīrzā Ḥusain ʿAlī Nūrī was first thrown into prison and then into the Osman. To be exiled rich. In Baghdad he revealed to some of his followers that he was the messian promised by the Bāb. Personality, the spiritual return of the Bāb. However, this claim was challenged by his younger half-brother Ṣubḥ-i Azal, which led to a split in the community. After stays in Baghdad, Istanbul and Edirne, Bahāʾ Allāh, who by now openly campaigned for his religion, and his entourage were sent to Akka in Palestine in 1868; his brother and his followers went into exile in Cyprus. In Akka, Bahāʾ Allāh wrote the Kitāb al-Aqdas ("The Holy of Holies", now also published in German), which was supposed to replace the Koran and the holy scriptures of the Bāb, Bayān. On the basis of the Kitāb al-Aqdas, the Bahāʾīs in Iran began to organize and obey the laws disclosed in this book. As early as 1874, a period. recurring persecution of members of the new religion by the government and large parts of the Shiite. Clergy a. Nevertheless, the B. religion spread not only among Iran in the last decades of the 19th century. Shiites, but also among Zoroastrians and Jews. During this time, the new religion found worldwide popularity in Iraq, Turkey, Greater Syria, Egypt, Sudan, the Caucasus, Central Asia, India and Burma. After the death of his father in 1892, Bahāʾ Allāh's son ʿAbbās Efendi ʿAbd al-Bahāʾ (1844 - 1921) took over the leadership of the religion, which found new believers in many other parts of the world. In Iran itself, the Bahāʾīs had to endure further pogroms until the end of the Qājār rule. During the reign of the two Pahlavi Shahs (1926-1979) there was repeated state and clerical persecution. Since the iran. Revolution and the establishment of Islam. Republic, the situation of the Bahāʾīs in Iran has deteriorated significantly. Around 200 of the country's most famous Bahāʾīs were executed, and many more were imprisoned. There are currently around 300,000 Bahāʾīs in Iran. Although Bahāʾīs are now recognized and treated as citizens due to international pressure, they are denied all rights related to religious freedom. Since the Bahāʾī religion is based on a founder who succeeded the Islamic prophet Muḥammad, it is rejected by the vast majority of Muslims, not only in Iran. In addition, the Bahāʾīs in Iran are accused of being members of a conspiracy aimed at the destruction of Iran and Twelve Shi'ite Islam. The central pilgrimage sites of the Bahāʾīs are in today's Israel, where the tomb of Bahāʾ Allaah is in Akka and that of the Bāb in Haifa. In Haifa, on the slopes of Mount Carmel, there is also the “Universal House of Justice”, from where a committee of nine elected Bahāʾīs directs the world congregation. In the “Houses of Worship”, of which there is one on every continent (the European “House of Worship” was inaugurated in Hofheim-Langenhain near Frankfurt in 1964), the word of God is supposed to work without human comment. The holy scriptures of all religions are presented there. The concept of progressive revelation in the B. religion states that successive divine manifestations have opened up increasingly sophisticated religious teachings to people over the millennia. This concept allows the recognition of all religions that arose earlier. Logically, one of the core statements of the B. doctrine is the ultimate unity of all prophets and founders of religions in the world. Worldwide there are between five and six million Bahāʾīs who send representatives to 182 (2016) national «Spiritual Councils». In Germany, the B. religion currently has around 6,000 members and around 100 "spiritual councils".

.: Esslemont, J. E .: Bahaʾuʾllah and the New Age, 1976. - Hutter, M .: The Baháʾi. History and teaching of a post-Islam. World religion, 1994. - Schäfer, U .: The Baháʾi in the modern world. Structures of a New Faith, 1981. Dehghani, S .: Martyrdom and Messianism: The Birth of Baha'itum, 2011. - Elsdörfer, U. (ed.): Global Religions: A Reader for Interreligious Discussion: Baháʾi, Christianentum, Islam, 2008. - Hutter, M .: Handbook Bahā'ī: History - Theology - Relation to Society, 2009. - Art. «Bahaism» (various authors), Encyclopaedia Iranica online.

Prof. Dr. Anja Pistor-Hatam, University of Kiel, Islamic Studies

Source: Elger, Ralf / Friederike Stolleis (eds.): Kleines Islam-Lexikon. History - everyday life - culture. Munich: 6th, updated and expanded edition 2018.