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Legs and Statics pp 317-412 | Cite as

Part of the Practical Anatomy book series (LANZ, volume 1)

Summary

Of all the sections of the arm and leg, the foot has deviated most from the basic plan of the original limbs. His achievement of forming the standing surface for the completely erect human body has decisively reshaped him. As with the perfect two-leggedness, man differs from all other living beings by the shape of his foot. The human foot has largely lost its phylogenetic and ontogenetic similarity to the human hand:
  1. I.

    The foot is bent at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the leg. The bending of the muscles and the ducts can be seen in the region of the ankle, Regio malleolaris, p. 317.

  2. II.

    The two ankle joints connected one behind the other, Articuli tali, p. 334, make the foot skeleton movable against the lower leg. In contrast to the wrist, they allow all degrees of freedom of movement in themselves. Compared to this, however, their range of motion is restricted, taut by bones and ligaments and inevitably coupled for two main movements.

  3. III.

    The skeletal parts of the tarsus and the metatarsus are connected to each other by tight joints to form buttresses. The pillars support the lower leg against the floor surface and form a curvature for the soft tissues of the sole of the foot, lengthways and crossways, Fornix pedis, p. 360. Compared to the wrist and metacarpus, the curvature is strongly extended lengthways. It has short toes compared to the fingers.

  4. IV.

    When turned away from the floor, the skeleton of the foot arches towards the back of the foot, Dorsum pedis, p. 379. Its structure is most similar to the back of the hand. Like the latter, it contains the extensor muscles of the end rays and the main venous and lymphatic drainage of the toes and the foot in loosely shifted positions.

  5. V.

    The soft tissue arrangement of the sole of the foot, Planta pedis, p. 392, has features that match those of the palm. Like the latter, it is also built to withstand pressure. Like them, it contains a great number of intrinsic muscles for the toes, especially for the marginal toes and the chief nerves and arteries of the soles and toes. Ligaments, tendons and muscles of the sole of the foot clamp the arches of the static foot skeleton.

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Notes

Special hint

This chapter is part of the Springer Book Archives digitization project with publications that have appeared since the publisher's beginnings in 1842. With this archive, the publisher provides sources for both historical and disciplinary research, each of which must be viewed in a historical context. This chapter is from a book that was published before 1945 and is therefore not advertised by the publisher in its political-ideological orientation typical of the time.

literature

I. ankle region, malleolar region

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