Why can't humans transform into autotrophs?

am Puls Biologie 5, textbook

46 2.2 Build-up and breakdown metabolism The metabolism is the totality of all biochemical processes of living beings How plants and animals feed on Plants, unlike animals, usually do not eat anything. Then where do they get the energy from which they live? Plants produce their own food! In photosynthesis, plants use the energy from sunlight to produce glucose from the low-energy inorganic substances water (H 2 O) and carbon dioxide (CO 2). This is then converted into a variety of organic substances. Organisms that can produce organic ones themselves from inorganic substances are called primary producers. Plants are also referred to as autotrophic 4 or self-feeding. In contrast to plants, animals cannot carry out photosynthesis, but have to feed on other animal and plant organisms. Animals are therefore referred to as heterotrophic or non-nourishing. Fig. 9: The heterotrophic cow feeds on autotrophic plants. Plants are autotrophic, animals are heterotrophic Glossary 1 Metabolism: metabolism; from the Greek metabolismo = conversion. Metabolism describes the totality of all chemical processes in living beings 2 Anabolism: building metabolism 3 Catabolism: breaking metabolism 4 Autotroph: "self-nourishing", from the Greek autos = self. Autotrophic living beings produce organic molecules themselves from inorganic ones, like plants in the course of photosynthesis. 5 Heterotroph: "nourishing oneself from others", from the Greek heteros = other and trophe = nutrition. This describes all living beings that have to absorb organic nutrients from the environment. This can take the form of solid food (as is the case with many animals), but also in dissolved form (e.g. with mushrooms). Basic concept of material and energy conversion: All living beings have to absorb the materials and the energy they need for life from their environment. In the metabolism of a living being, the absorbed substances are used as operating and building materials. The digestion of food, the transport of oxygen in our blood, the build-up of muscle tissue or the breakdown of fatty tissue - all these processes are part of the human process Metabolism. Metabolism or metabolism 1 is an essential characteristic of all living beings and describes the totality of all life-sustaining chemical processes that take place in living beings. In order to maintain their life processes, all living beings have to extract free energy and substances from their environment that they need for life. Therefore, living beings are in a constant exchange of substances and energy with their environment. Similar to the gasoline with which you have to fill up a car in order to drive it, absorbed substances are used as “fuel” or energy carriers of a living being for its life processes. This part of the metabolism is called the operating metabolism. At the same time, some of the substances absorbed are not used for the operation of processes, but rather as building material for living beings to grow and maintain their bodies. The absorbed substances also serve as raw materials in building metabolism. There is a constant build-up, change and breakdown of substances in a living being. All those processes that lead to the body's own complex molecules being built up belong to anabolism 2. The conversion of absorbed exogenous substances into endogenous substances is called assimilation. Many anabolic processes serve to build up tissue and organs, such as the increase in muscle mass or the mineralization of bones. Photosynthesis (see p. 49 ff.) Is also part of anabolism. In contrast, catabolism 3 includes all the degrading metabolic processes of a living being, in which complex molecules are broken down into simpler ones. The breakdown of high-energy substances for energy supply is called dissimilation. The breakdown releases energy for other processes. This includes, for example, cellular respiration (see p. 55 ff.) And fermentation processes such as alcoholic fermentation (see p. 60 f.). Living beings use the absorbed substances as operating materials or as building materials. Material and energy conversion Only for test purposes - property of the publisher öbv

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