Are nature and technology natural enemies

Natural enemies of bark beetles

Of the 112 species of bark beetle found in Switzerland and around 300 in Europe, only about a dozen attack trees that are living on a large scale. Since these species can cause economic losses, they are classified as pests. Bark beetles, however, play an important ecological role in breaking down fresh dead wood or in the design of entire habitats and are therefore important components in the long-term, natural dynamics of coniferous forests in particular. Because of the economic importance of the harmful species, extensive studies have been carried out on their natural regulatory factors, in particular on the importance of woodpeckers, predatory beetles and flies, as well as parasitic wasps.

As robber one describes opponents (antagonists) who need several prey animals for their development and are usually larger than their prey. The most important groups of predatory species - besides the woodpeckers discussed below - can be found among the beetles and flies as well as the mites (Fig. 2–4). Parasites and Parasitoids develop on or in a host. In the case of parasites, the host usually survives the parasitization; in the case of parasitoids, it dies. Parasitoids are of particular interest here. Usually these are also insects. Pathogens are pathogens.

The most important predators, parasites and pathogens ("natural enemies") are presented here. Their way of life and effects are discussed in the original article Natural enemies of bark beetles (Merkbl. Prax. 67).