Who made the first plane

Aviation history chronology

in a compilation of the Otto Lilienthal Museum Anklam

around 2300 BC Chr.
Depiction of the aviation of King Etana on an eagle in the ruins of Nineveh (in the exhibition).

750 BC u. Z.
Creation of the legend of Daedalus and lcarus

around 400 BC u. Z.
The much-described dove by the Greek mathematician Archytas von Tarant could have been a dragon.

2nd century BC u. Z.
Origin of the Alexander legend, in which Alexander v. Macedonia flies "to the end of the world" with a team of starved griffins. The motif recurs frequently (in the exhibition).

220 BC u. Z.
Chinese tradition of the use of a plane kite to measure distances

2nd century before to 5th century after Chr.
Huge earth drawings (geoglyphs) in the Peruvian desert, whose function has not yet been explained, date from the time of the Nazca culture. A particularly interesting hypothesis comes from A. Steimann (Würzburg) who sees prehistoric hang-gliding airfields in you.

10th century
The fettered kite is believed to be spread across the Pacific region and is used for manned, military, religious and ceremonial purposes.

1247
The Mongolian armies use fire kites in the battle of Liegnitz.

1282
Marco Polo reports on manned and ritual dragon ascents.

1316 - 1390
Albert von Sachsen, Bishop of Halberstadt, advocates the thesis that air can carry a meaningfully constructed machine just as water can carry a ship (Archimedes' principle).

1326
Depiction of a winged airbag kite in the script "De nobilitatibus".

1400
Use of fire kites in European warfare.

1486 - 1513
Aeronautical and mathematical studies by Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519). His records include: a parachute draft, a jack screw, drafts for swing planes, flow studies and streamlined bodies. Leonardo was apparently the first to properly understand the mechanics of bird flight.

1496
The Italian mathematician Giambattista Danti reportedly flies from a tower in the city of Perugia. There are numerous representations of alleged flights and flight attempts in many countries. The ability to fly is attributed to saints and witches in popular belief in the Middle Ages.

around 1500
On his triptichon "The Temptation of St. Anthony", Hironymus Bosch et al. two fighting airships represent over a burning city.

1558
Giambattista della Porta publishes a complete theory and construction description of the area kite.

1644
The Italian physicist Evangelista Toricelli succeeds in proving the air pressure and creating a vacuum, the "Torricellian void".

1654
The physicist and mayor of Magdeburg Otto von Guericke measures the weight of the air and demonstrates his famous "Magdeburg hemispheres": 16 horses cannot pull apart two empty hemispheres that are only held together by the external air pressure.

1670
In his text "Prodomo" (In his own right), the Jesuit Francesco Lana de Terzi describes a vacuum airship project that is considered the first realistic technical design for an airship (in the exhibition). However, Lana writes: "God will never allow such a machine to come about ... because who does not see that no city is safe from raids ...".

1678
Alleged flight of the French locksmith Besnier with a wing flapping device (in the exhibition).

1680
The Italian physicist Alphonso Borelli shows in his book "The Movement of Animals" that flapping wings with the arm muscles of humans cannot be successful.

1687
Isaac Newton (1642-1727) published with his "Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica" the basics of classical physics that are still valid today. Book 2 contains the derivation of the (air) resistance.

17th century
In the course of this century the area kite became popular in Europe.

1709
Airship privilege and hot air balloon attempts by Lourenco de Gusmao in Lisbon (in the exhibition).

1716
Well thought-out gliding project by Swedish scholar Emanuel Swedenborg. The basis of its construction are the flight of birds and the fettered kite.

1738
In his "Hydrodynamica", the Swiss scholar Daniel Bernoulli (1700 - 1782) developed the law of conservation of energy for gases (Bernoulli's law), the relationship between pressure and speed in a flow.

1746
The English military engineer Benjamin Robins (1707 - 1751) used a rotary device to determine air resistance.

1766
The British chemist Henry Cavendish determines the specific weight of hydrogen gas.

1772
In France, the Abbé Desforges unsuccessfully tested an aircraft with a gondola and oars made from bird feathers.

1777
The convict Dominikus Dufort jumps with a "parachute robe" from a tall building in St. Louis and is rewarded with a spontaneous collection of money.

1781
The Italian scientist Tiberius Cavallo, who lives in England, lets up soap bubbles filled with hydrogen.

1783
Sébastian Lenormand makes parachute jumps from the tower of the observatory in Montpellier.

June 5, 1783
Ascent of a hot air balloon of the Montgolfier brothers (without crew) in Vivarais / France.

August 27, 1783
Ascent of the first unmanned hydrogen test balloon in Paris (builder: Prof. Charles and the Robert brothers).

September 19, 1783
Aviation of a duck, a rooster and a mutton in a hot air balloon in Versailles.

October 15, 1783
J. F. Pilatre de Rozier and Marquis d'Arlandes rise in a tied hot air balloon in Paris.

November 21, 1783
Pilatre de Rozier and Marquis d'Arlandes take the first free ride in a Montgolfière (hot air balloon) in Paris.

December 1, 1783
Prof. Charles and his assistant Robert carry out the first ascent with a hydrogen-filled balloon (Charliere). On the second ascent, Prof. Charles reached a height of 2,700 m in Vivarais.

1784
Pilâtre de Rozier and the chemist Proust rise in a hot air balloon to an altitude of 4000 m.

September 19, 1784
186 km balloon flight from Paris to Beuvry by the brothers Robert and Colin Hullin.

1784
Airship project by Jean Baptiste Meusnier to explore foreign areas with elongated balloon bodies, ballonets and propellers with muscle power (in the exhibition).

January 7, 1785
Crossing of the English Channel by aircraft by Jean-Piere Blanchard and the American meteorologist John Jeffries from Dover to Guines.

June 15, 1785
Pilâtre de Rozier and Piére Romain fatally fall with their balloon at the start of the canal crossing and become the first casualties of the successful airship journey.

1793
Military balloon use during the siege of Mainz.

January 9, 1793
First balloon flight in North America and first airmail delivery: Blanchard travels from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to Gloucester County, New Jersey.

April 2, 1794
Formation of the first airship company of the French army.

October 22, 1797
André-Jaques Garnerin jumps off a balloon with a parachute and becomes "official French state airman".

1799
The Englishman Sir George Cayley (1773 - 1857) sketches a glider with a rudder and horizontal stabilizer (in the exhibition). His manuscript is considered the starting point for the scientific study of the aircraft "heavier than air". "It was Cayley who helped clear the confusion of the time. ... He knew more than any of his predecessors ... and successors until the end of the 19th century." - Orville Wright. Nevertheless, his findings have had little influence on further development.

around 1800
Francisco Goya shows in his etching "The Art of Flying" people with artificial wings that can be operated by arms and legs. The planes are very detailed and shown in several views.

July 18, 1803
Etienne Gaspar Robertson and Lhoest climb from Hamburg to an altitude of 7,280 m.

October 3rd and 4th, 1803
The Frenchman André-Jaques Garnerin covers 395 km with the balloon from Paris to Clausen.

Aug./Sept. 1804
The physicists Joseph-Lois Gay-Lussac and Jean Baptiste Biot ascend to scientific measurements and refute the thesis that the earth's gravity decreases with altitude.

1804
J. Kaiserer suggested making a balloon steerable with the help of tamed eagles.

1804
Sir George Cayley builds a successful glider model based on his aircraft concept from 1799 (in the exhibition).

1807
The original Viennese maker Jakob Degen experiments with valve flap flaps (in the exhibition).

1808
Attempts by J. Degen to combine a balloon with flapping wings.

1809 / 1810
Sir George Cayley publishes in his series of articles "On Aerial Navigation" the principles of the theory of heavier than air flight.


May 31, 1811
Albrecht Ludwig Berblinger, the "tailor of Ulm", falls into the Danube with his apparatus modeled on J. Degen. Presumably it was a working hang glider (in the exhibition).

July 19, 1821
Use of illuminating gas to fill the balloon (Green).

November 7th and 8th, 1836
722 km balloon ride from London to Weilburg through Green, Holland and Mason.

1838
The introduction of the tear strip, which is still in use today, by the American John Wise defused the problem that the balloon basket is often dragged many meters above the ground when landing and has to be brought to a halt by anchors.

1839
Charles Green and the astronomer Spencer Rush rise in a free balloon to 7,900 m.

November 1842
First complete draft of a steam engine powered airplane by the English engineer William Samuel Henson (in the exhibition). The patent picks up on the work of Cayley. The founding application for an "Aerial Transport Company" was rejected in the English House of Commons amid loud laughter.

July 12th and 25th, 1849
Unsuccessful bombing of Venice with the help of hot air balloons by Austria.

October 7, 1849
The French Francisque Arban crosses the Alps in a free balloon (Marseille-Stubini near Turin).

1849
Sir George Cayley builds a man-carrying three-decker that is tested by rope launch on a slope. A successful monoplane flight takes place in 1853 with Cayley's coachman as the pilot.

September 24, 1852
The steam engine-powered airship designed by the English engineer Henry Giffard reaches a speed of around 10 km / h (in the exhibition).

1852
Creation of the first society for the promotion of aviation (Societe Aerostatique de France).

1857
After successful model tests, the French brothers du Temple de la Croix took out a patent on a well-engineered powered aircraft.

1857
After bird studies (albatross), the French captain Jean Marie Le Bries undertakes flight attempts with a tow start, which are said to have been successful. The flying machine is documented in an early photograph (Nadar).

1858
The French aviator Nadar takes the first aerial photo.

July 1st and 2nd, 1859
Balloon flight over 1292 km through John Wise with three companions (St. Louis-Henderson, USA).

September 5, 1862
The Aeronaut Coxwell and the Engl. Physicists Glaisher reach a height of 9,000 m on a dramatic ascent.

1865
In his novel "Die Reise zum Mond", Jules Verne describes the rocket launch from Cap Kennedy, from where the American rocket launches actually took place many years later.

1865
The Frenchman d'Esterno writes in his book "About the Flight of Birds": "Gliding seems to be characteristic of heavy birds; there is nothing to prevent humans from imitating these birds in favorable wind conditions."

1865
The French painter and farmer Louise Pierre Mouillard makes a successful attempt at flight. After years of studying birds, he published his book "L'Empire de l'Air" in 1881, in which he believes that it is possible to imitate the gliding and gliding of birds, but not the wing flight.

1867
Henry Giffard installs a giant tethered balloon for 20 people at the Paris World Exhibition.

1868
M. Boulton takes an English patent for the use of ailerons.

1868
First aviation exhibition in London's Crystal Palace.

1870/71
Franco-German War: A total of 66 balloons are launched in besieged Paris to overcome the siege ring.

1871
The Frenchman Alphonse Pénaud builds a free-flying powered airplane model with a rubber engine (in the exhibition).

1871
The Englishmen Wenham and Browning undertake flow tests in a wind tunnel.

February 2, 1872
The French naval engineer Dupuy de Lome reaches a speed of 9 to 11 km / h with a muscle-powered airship (exhibition area C).

December 13, 1872
Testing of the first airship with a gas engine by the German engineer Paul Haenlein in Brno. The airship reaches 19 km / h. The attempts are canceled due to lack of money.

July 5, 1874
The Belgian Vincent de Groof had a fatal accident while attempting to fly with the arms when the arms, which were operated by the arms, collapsed after taking off from the balloon.

1874
Lift and drag measurements on airfoil profiles by Otto and Gustav Lilienthal, which are not published until 1889. Exploration, inter alia the advantage of the curved surface.

1875
The Englishman Thomas Moy is testing a tied up powered airplane model with a steam engine drive and a 4 m wingspan.

April 15, 1875
The scientific altitude flight of the Zenith balloon at 8,000 m ends with the death of two pilots and the deafness of Gaston Tissandier.

1876
The French Penaud and Gauchot take out a patent for a powered airplane with retractable landing gear, wing V-shape, control stick.

1877
First flight of a steam-powered model helicopter (Forlanini).

1879
The Frenchman Victor Tatin builds a powered airplane model with propellers and a compressed air motor, which successfully takes off from the ground.

1881
The Russian Alexander Fyodorowitsch Moshaiski receives a patent for a motorized airplane powered by a steam engine.

1882
The "German Association for the Promotion of Aviation", founded in Berlin, publishes the first German specialist aviation magazine.

1883
The German Gottlieb Daimler invents the high-speed internal combustion engine, which is suitable for aviation due to its more favorable ratio between power and weight.

1883/84
Airships with electric motors (brothers Tissandier, Renard and Krebs). On August 9, 1884, Renard and Krebs' airship made its first trip in a closed circuit (in the exhibition).

1884
The Englishman Horatio F. Philipps takes a patent on curved wing profiles.

September 12th and 13th, 1886
Balloon ride over 24 hours by the French Hervé and Alluard.

1889
Otto Lilienthal publishes in his book "The flight of birds as the basis of the art of flying" measurements on wings, so-called polar diagrams, which are the basis of our current system of terms and which prove the advantages of wing curvature.

October 9, 1890
The Frenchman Ader's "Eole" aircraft takes off from the ground.

1891
Otto Lilienthal reaches flight distances of up to 25 meters. These are now considered to be the first safe, repeatable gliding flights in history and his method "from jump to flight" is the only one that enables one to learn to fly.

1893
The Australian Hargrave demonstrates the box kite (in the exhibition) at an aeronautical congress in Sydney. He became a model for numerous scientific kites up to and including airplanes.

1893
First experiments by the Englishman Philipps with a 50-decker.

4th December 1894
The German meteorologist Berson rises to 9,155 m.

1894
The American H.S. Maxims is damaged in roll tests that show sufficient buoyancy. He then stopped his experiments, which had already devoured hundreds of thousands.

1894
Otto Lilienthal starts the first series production of an airplane with the "normal sailing apparatus". With various aircraft designs, he can reach flight distances of up to 250 m.

1894
The book "Progress in Flying Machines" by Octave Chanute (USA) as a summary of a series of articles in the "American Engineer and Railroad Journal" is a comprehensive representation of the worldwide state of development on the way to aircraft (reprint available).

1895 to 1899
The English engineer Percy Sinclair Pilcher works successfully in the field of gliding and powered flight (exhibition area I). He had a fatal accident on September 30, 1899 during a gliding demonstration.

May 6, 1896
First flight of the powered airplane model with steam engine propulsion by the American Prof. Samuel Pierpont Langley over a distance of 1 km.

August 9, 1896
Otto Lilienthal "overshoots" during a routine flight in the Stöllner Mountains and dies the following day of a spinal injury as a result of the crash.

from June 1896
Railway engineer Octave Chanute organizes air camps on Lake Michigan. Among other things, the following are tested. a Lilienthal glider (replica) and a biplane built by Chanute, which will be the basis for the further development of flight technology (in the exhibition).

1896
Invention of the kite balloon for observation purposes in higher winds by the Germans August von Parseval and Bartsch von Sigsfeld.

June 12, 1897
Friedrich Hermann Wölfert and his mechanic are killed in a demonstration over the Tempelhofer Feld with their gasoline-powered airship in the fire.

July 11, 1897
S. A. Andrée, N. Strindberg and K. Fraenkel start on Spitzbergen with a free balloon for the North Pole expedition. They are not found dead until 1930. The film material found could still be developed.

November 3, 1897
Ascent of an aluminum airship owned by the Hungarian David Schwarz in Berlin.

1900 to 1903
Gliding, wind tunnel and control experiments by the Wright brothers (USA), which lead to successful powered flight.

July 2, 1900
First ascent of the all-metal airship v. Ferdinand Count v. Zeppelin.

July 31, 1901
The German meteorologists Berson and Süring reach a height of 10,800 m in a free balloon.

August 14, 1901
Allegedly first stable powered flight of the German-American Gustav Weißkopf over half a mile in Bridgeport / Connecticut. Flight is controversial in aviation history and has not influenced the development of powered flight.

October 19, 1901
The Brazilian Alberto Santos-Dumont circumnavigates the Eiffel Tower in his airship number 6 from St. Cloud and returns to the launch site in 30 minutes. These were the conditions of the German Prize, endowed with 100,000 francs.

1901
The Austrian W. Kress's seaplane is destroyed while attempting to take off.

1901
First flights of a powered airplane model with a gasoline engine (Prof. Langley, USA).

1901
The Wright brothers optimize their wings using wind tunnel measurements.

1903
The Russian Konstantin Ziolkowski derives the basic rocket equation in his contribution: "Exploring Space Using Reaction Apparatus".

August 18, 1903
Karl Jatho makes short jumps in the air with his powered airplane near Hanover.

October 8 and December 8, 1903
During both flight attempts, Prof. Samuel Pierpont Langley's motorized airplane crashed immediately after the catapult launch from a floating ramp in the Potomac near Washington.

December 17, 1903
4 successful take-offs, which the Wright brothers alternate in the dunes near Kitty Hawk (North Carolina), are now considered to be the beginning of powered flight. During the 4th and longest flight over 59 seconds, the biplane is damaged so that the tests will not be continued until the following year (in the exhibition).

September 20, 1904
Wilbur Wright completes the first circular flight. To make take-off easier, the Wrights develop a catapult device.

October 14, 1905
Foundation of the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) in Paris, which is still active today.

October 4, 1905
Orville Wright flies 33 minutes 17 seconds in Dayton.

1905
Daniel Maloney takes off from a balloon at an altitude of 1,220 m in Santa Clara (California) and performs a 20-minute gliding and gliding flight. At the next start he had an accident.

1905
The helicopter of the engineer Léger lifts a person vertically into the air in Monaco.

November 12, 1906
Santos-Dumont, who already caused a sensation in 1901 with his one-man airship, flies 220 m in Paris with an idiosyncratic aircraft of his design, which combines the duck principle of the Wrights with the box kite Hargraves.

1906
Schwabenfahrt of the Zeppelin airship LZ III. 350 km are covered in eight hours.

1906
First Gordon Bennett free balloon race. Originally that of James Gordon-Bennett, the owner of the New York Harald, was supposed to be open to all aviation. However, only the balloons could appear on long journeys.

September 9, 1908
Orville Wright flies 1 hour, 3 minutes, 15 seconds.

October 30, 1908
Henry Farman flies on his first overland flight with a motorized airplane from Bouy to Reims (27 km in 20 minutes).

December 18, 1908
Wilbur Wright reaches 115 m altitude in Auvours.

December 31, 1908
Wilbur Wright flies 2 hours 20 minutes into Auvours.

5th August 1908
The Zeppelin airship LZ IV burns near Echterdingen.

July 25, 1909
Frenchman L. Blériot crossed the English Channel in a powered airplane with his successful type Blériot XI between Calais and Dover.

July - October 1909
International aviation exhibition in Frankfurt / M: (ILA - today regularly in Berlin).

October 30, 1909
Hans Grade wins the "Lanz-Preis der Lüfte" (40,000 RM for 2 km by a German pilot in a German aircraft).

November 16, 1909
Foundation of the world's first airline, DELAG.

1909
First flight weeks in Berlin-Johannisthal and Frankfurt / M.

January 7, 1910
The Frenchman Hubert Latham is the first pilot to reach an altitude of 1,000 m.

March 28, 1910
Henry Fabre flies the first successful seaplane.

1910
First FileZilla night flights are carried out.

1910
Races between aircraft and cars are all won by racing cars.

April 14, 1910
Louis Paulhan flies 146 km in a straight line from Orleans to Trois.

July 9, 1910
The Frenchman Léon Morane flies a speed record of 106 km / h.

September 23, 1910
The Peruvian Geo Chavez flies in a Blériot monoplane over the Alps from Brig (Switzerland) to Domodossola (Italy) at an altitude of 2,200 m. He dies on the unsuccessful landing approach.

1910
Hugo Junkers takes out a patent for a thick, self-supporting flying wing.

April 12, 1911
Pierre Prier flies non-stop from London to Paris in just under four hours.

October 24, 1911
Orville Wright sails a glider in the dunes near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina for 9 minutes and 45 seconds.

March 1, 1912
Albert Berry performs the first parachute jump from an airplane in St. Louis (USA).

April 24, 1913
Flight over 825 km from Villacoublay to Vitoria by O. Gilbert (8 hours, 23 minutes).

September 1, 1913
First inverted flight with an airplane by the Frenchman Adolphe Pégoud.

September 9, 1913
The Russian Pyotr N. Nestjerow flies the first loop.

September 29, 1913
Prevost reaches a speed of 204 km / h on the "Deperdussin racing plane".

December 11, 1913
First flight of the large Russian aircraft Ilja Murometz (4 engines, 4.5 t take-off weight, 2 crew members, 10 passengers).

December 13-17, 1913
The German balloonist Hugo Kaulen stays in the air for over 87 hours in a free balloon. This record lasted until 1935.

February 8-10, 1914
Berliner, Haase and Nikolai cover 3,053 km from Bitterfeld to Perm in a free balloon. Record until 1950.

July 10-11, 1914
The German Reinhold Böhm flies on an Albatros biplane for 24 hours and 12 minutes without refueling or landing. This single flight record lasted until 1927.

1914 to 1918
The First World War changed the image of war in two ways:
- The still very young invention "airplane" made the sky the new theater of war. Around 20,000 of the newly trained aviators, the majority of the flying personnel, lose their lives.
- Airships abolish the clear separation between the front and the hinterland. The civilian population becomes a new target far behind the front.

1917
November 21 to 24, Africa flight of the Zeppelin airship L 59. 6 757 km are covered in 96 hours (average speed 71 km / h).

June 14, 1919
Atlantic crossing by the Englishmen J. Alcock and a. W. Brown - 8 years before the famous Lindbergh flight - with the Vickers EB.27 Vimy bomber. Alcocks comment: "Yesterday I was in America, and I am the first man in Europe to say that."

July 2-6 and July 10-13, 1919
Ocean crossing of the English airship R 34 (England-USA-England).

August 1, 1919
A fettered kite reaches a height of 9750 meters. The altitude world record set in the Lindenberg Aerological Observatory is still valid today.
August 24, 1919
Opening of air traffic between Friedrichshafen and Berlin (airship "Bodensee").
1919
The American R. H. Goddard publishes his work "A Method for Reaching Very Great Heights", a standard work in space literature.

1919
On the basis of the Versailles Peace Treaty, a construction and flight ban for powered aircraft is issued in Germany. This is modified several times in the following years.

17th July 1920
Start of a gliding and gliding competition on the Wasserkuppe (Rhön). The annual Rhön competitions became the beginning of today's gliding in the following years. "The glider flight is undoubtedly the best that the Germans have ever made out of a lost war." - D. Vogt.

1922
Hermann Oberth submitted his dissertation, which was rejected as "too fantastic". In 1923 it was published as the book "The Rocket to the Planetary Spaces" and as one of the major works in the history of space travel.

October 12-15, 1924
Transfer of the Zeppelin airship LZ 126 (ZR III "Los Angeles") to America under the leadership of H. Eckener.

May 11-14, 1926
R. Amundsen flies over the North Pole (Spitzbergen - North Pole - Alaska) with the airship "Norge".

May 20-21, 1927
The American mail pilot Charles A. Lindbergh wins the 1919 prize for the direct flight New York - Paris in his single-engine Ryan RYN, the "Spirit of St. Louis" and becomes world famous overnight.

July 12, 1929
First flight of the "commercial flight ship" Dornier Do X over Lake Constance. With its twelve engines, it was the largest aircraft ever built. The flight with 10 crew members and 159 passengers (employees and relatives) was a record set for a large aircraft only 20 years later.

August 8-29, 1929
World tour of the airship LZ 127 "Graf Zeppelin". 34,200 km are covered in four stages at an average speed of 114 km / h. (Friedrichshafen - New York (Lakehurst) - Friedrichshafen - Tokyo - Los Angeles - Lakehurst - Friedrichshafen). At the request of the main financier, the US Publisher W. C. Hearst began and ended the world tour by circling the Statue of Liberty.

May 27, 1931
The Swiss Prof. August Piccard and his assistant Kipfer reach a height of 15,781 m in the stratospheric balloon.The ascent took place in Augsburg, the landing on a glacier in Austria.

August 29, 1931
Opening of air traffic between Germany and Brazil with the airship LZ 127 "Graf Zeppelin".

January 1934
The stratospheric balloon "Ossoaviachim I" of the Soviet pilots Fedossenko, Wassenko and Usyskin reaches a height of 22,000 m.

May 6, 1937
The fire disaster of the Zeppelin airship LZ 129 "Hindenburg" in Lakehurst (USA) ends intercontinental airship travel.

June 20, 1939
The Heinkel He 176 is the first aircraft to fly exclusively with a liquid rocket engine.

July 6, 1939
Motorless flight over 749 km from Moscow to Otradnoye by Olga Klepikowa with a performance glider (world record).

August 27, 1939
First flight of an aircraft with jet engine at Heinkelwerke in Rostock, the He 178 (test pilot Erich Warsitz).

February 25, 1941
First flight of the high-capacity glider Messerschmitt Me-321 "Gigant" (55 m wingspan, 35 t weight).

May 14, 1941
Flight of the first English jet aircraft Gloster E28 / 29.

October 3, 1942
An A4 rocket, the later "Retaliation Weapon 2", flies 190 km from Peenemünde on Usedom in 296 seconds at a summit height of 84.5 km and 5 times the speed of sound (leaving the stratosphere).

July 4, 1943
First flight of a non-motorized aircraft towed by a motorized aircraft over the Atlantic (5,600 km).

September 22 to 24, 1943
Ernst Jachtmann flies a single-seater glider for 55 hours and 51 minutes in the updraft.

August 6, 1945
The B 29 bomber "Enola Gay" transports a new quality of war, the uranium-235 bomb "Little Boy" (little boy), to Hiroshima.

September 29 to October 1, 1946
Th. D. Davies flies with crew in a Lockheed P 2V-1 18080 km in a straight line (Perth, Australia-Columbus, USA).

October 14, 1947
The American Charles Jaeger exceeds the speed of sound (Mach 1.04) with the Bell X 1 test rocket aircraft.

October 25-28, 1950
S. Zinoviev, S. Gaigerow and M. Kirpichev drive a distance of 3,160 km in the free balloon USSR-WR-79 in 84 hours.

March 20, 1951
NASA engineer Francis Melvin Rogallo receives the patent pending in 1948 for flexible wings. The system will later be tested at NASA, up to the Gemini program, as a retrieval system for space capsules. The principle is the decisive step from Lilienthal's flight principle to today's hang gliding (in the exhibition).

4th October 1957
Sputnik-1 as the first artificial earth satellite in its orbit at an altitude of 800 km. Sputnik-2 has Lejka on board on November 3rd.

April 12, 1961
Yuri Gagarin (Soviet Union) becomes the first person in space with Wostock-1.

1963
John Dickenson / Australia is testing the control of a Rogallo kite using a control trapeze.

3. - 24. 2. 1963
Gliding World Championships in Argentina: Due to the achievable performance, the "free route" discipline will no longer be held in future (winning performance 716 km).

December 31, 1968
First flight of the "Tupolev Tu-144", the first supersonic airliner.

20th July 1969
The astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin (USA) are the first people to set foot on another celestial body, the moon.

Nov 18, 1971
The Soviet lunar mobile "Lunochod" lands on the earth's satellite.

April 11, 1973
The American Mike Harker flies with a hang glider (kite) from the 2,000 m high south face of the Zugspitze to the valley. This sensational flight gives the new aircraft its breakthrough in Europe.

September 1-12, 1976
First world championship in hang gliding in Kössen / Tyrol.

August 12-18, 1978
Atlantic crossing (USA - France) in a balloon by the Americans Abruzzo, Anderson and Newman.

12. 6. 1979
The muscle power plane "Gossamer Albatros" crosses the English Channel (36 km in 2 hours, 49 minutes).

1979
Motorless hang glider flight in the Sierra Nevada (USA) over more than 160 km through George Worthington.

April 12, 1981
A new technology links aerospace: The space shuttle "Columbia" takes off from Cape Canaveral.

7th February 1984
US astronaut Bruce McCandless floats free in space. A jet engine on his back allows him a maneuvering radius of 100 meters and the return to the space shuttle "Challanger".

December 23, 1986
Non-stop circumnavigation of the earth by plane (without refueling): American pilots D. Rutan and J. Yeager reached "Voyager" (now the Nat. Air & Space Museum Washington) after more than 40,000 km with their 3-hull experimental aircraft and 9 days back to their starting place in California. The "U.S. News & World Report" writes about the "last great aviation adventure" !?

April 23, 1988
New world record in muscular power flight following in the footsteps of a legend: Greek professional cyclist K. Kanellopoulos flies 119 km from Crete to the Aegean island of Santorin in the 32 kg heavy muscular power aircraft "Daedalus 88" of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

March 1-21, 1999
Another "last adventure" in aviation: The successful circumnavigation of the earth in a non-powered balloon by the Swiss Bertrand Piccard and the Englishman Brian Jones in a roziere (a combined helium / hot air balloon). The key to success was "jet streams", air currents of up to 300 km / h at an altitude of 10,000 m.

August 13, 2001
Flying at the edge of the earth's atmosphere: The unmanned NASA solar aircraft Helios flies a world record of 29,413 m. 14 electric motors and a wingspan of 75.3 meters that is significantly larger than that of the Boeing 747 made it possible to fly in the 30-fold diluted air at the edge the atmosphere.

September 11, 2001
With the help of commercial airliners, suicide attacks are carried out on emblematic buildings in New Nork and Washington with over 3,000 victims. Once again, aviation is becoming an occasion, a cause, a symbol or justification for a turning point in world military events.

June 18 - July 2, 2002
The American Steve Fossett orbits the world alone in a hot air balloon. The balloon basket of the "Bud Light Spirit of Freedom" balloon measured 2.1 * 1.7 m.

April 2011
Festo is presenting its smartbird, a fully controllable artificial bird with flapping wings, at the Hanover Fair. With a span of two meters and a weight of 0.45 kg, it requires an output of 23 watts.
 
March 2015 to July 2016
Circumnavigation of the world by Solar Impuls 2, the first aircraft powered solely by solar energy. The flight of the Swiss Bertrand Piccard and André Borschberg led in 17 stages from Abu Dhabi via China, Japan, the USA, Spain and Egypt back to Abu Dhabi, with a repair break of over 9 months in Hawaii.
 

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