What is positive and negative schizophrenia
Synonym: negative symptoms
The term Negative symptoms or Minus symptoms summarizes various symptoms that can occur in the context of schizophrenia. They are characterized by the degradation, diminution and impoverishment of a person's psychological characteristics.
The single symptom is called Negative symptom.
Negative symptoms concern affect, drive, psychomotor and thinking:
- The affect is impoverished, i.e. the ability to experience emotions is limited, the spectrum of feelings is reduced. The patient may be unable to feel joy (anhedonia) and appear indifferent or indifferent. Such a depletion of affect is practically always accompanied by a flattening of affect, i.e. a markedly reduced ability to vibrate.
- The drive is diminished; those affected show less interest and are less active.
- The Psychomotor is reduced. Patients appear less lively or even rigid in facial expressions and gestures, and the voice is barely modulated.
- The Think is also impoverished, empty and unimaginative, with generally less thought-provoking content.
In addition, there are mostly cognitive limitations in the form of attention and concentration disorders.
Pronounced negative symptoms often lead to social isolation and professional decline.
3 Clinical Significance
The occurrence of negative symptoms in the context of schizophrenia is considered to be prognostically unfavorable.
Negative symptoms are queried by the examiner as part of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). This part is also known as PANSS-FSNS. It comprises 7 items, which can be rated with a severity of 1 (not available) to 7 (extreme).
Second or third generation antipsychotics are said to have an effect not only on the positive symptoms but also on the negative symptoms. For example, risperidone and cariprazine were able to reduce negative symptoms recorded by the PANSS-FSNS.
Strong side effects of the drugs used can also simulate or intensify negative symptoms. Antipsychotic treatment therefore always belongs in the hands of an experienced practitioner.
see also:Positive symptoms
- ^ Németh G. et al .: Cariprazine versus risperidone monotherapy for treatment of predominant negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial The Lancet Volume 389, Issue 10074, 18-24 March 2017, Pages 1103-1113
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