How did civilizations develop in ancient India

About India

History of India

The beginnings of the history of India go back up to 5,000 years in the past and are characterized by phases of different rule, English influence and numerous conflicts. The subcontinent saw many rulers, dynasties, and Mughals come and go. The name India is derived from the Indus, the longest river on the Indian subcontinent, which rises in India and flows through what is now Pakistan. From 2500 BC The first advanced civilization of the Indus, one of the oldest civilizations in the world, blossomed here. Around 1500 BC The first Aryans came to this area from the north. They penetrated from the Punjab along the Ganges deep into India as far as Bengal. The mixing of the Aryans and the earlier Indus gave rise to the classical Indian culture. At this time, Hinduism and Buddhism, two of the oldest and largest religions in the world, were particularly influenced. British influence began with the establishment of a trading post in Surat (Gujarat) in 1612, which was made possible by Queen Elizabeth I by means of a commercial partnership agreement and ensured the monopoly for trade between India and England. The East India Company, which expanded as a result of this contract, became the determining element. Not just British, but Portuguese too; The French and Dutch had their representations in India.

Resistance to British colonial rule, especially under Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, led to the country's independence in 1947. The subcontinent was divided into two states, the secular (Hindu) state of India and the smaller Islamic state of Pakistan. After two previous wars with Pakistan, a third war in 1971 led to the secession of East Pakistan and the establishment of the new state of Bangladesh.

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Data & facts

The Republic of India has an area of ​​3,287,263 km² and shares borders with the following countries: Bangladesh 4,142 km, Bhutan 659 km, Myanmar 1,468 km, China 2,659 km, Nepal 1,770 km, Pakistan 3,190 km.

The capital is New Delhi.

The climate varies from tropical monsoons in the south to temperate in the north.



The total population is 1,339,180,127 (Dec 2017).

The median age of the population in India is 28.4 (2020). The age structure (2020) is distributed as follows: 0-14 years: 26.2%; 15-24 years: 18.0%; 25-64 years: 49.3%; 65 years and over: 6.6%.

The illiteracy rate (2018) is 25.6%, the total number of degrees from university graduates (2018) 8,441,262.



India's form of government is the Parliamentary Republic. Narenda Modi has been Prime Minister since 2014.

India achieved independence in 1947 and the constitution came into effect on January 26th, 1950.

After more than 65 years of independence, a solid democratic system has developed in India, in which the separation of powers and federalism are the most important pillars.

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Relations Germany India

About 1000 German companies have settled in India, the most popular location is Pune (especially for production).

42% of German companies are located in Pune and Mumbai, followed by Delhi / Gurgaon (14%), Bangalore (14%), Chennai (8%), Kolkata (5%).

Germany is India's most important trading partner in the European Union.

Baden-Württemberg has been a partner state of Maharashtra since 2015 and Stuttgart and Mumbai have been twinned since 1968.

As early as the 1960s, Mumbai, which was still called Bombay at the time, made contact with German cities to enter into a partnership. Stuttgart was predestined for this, as it already had numerous connections to India at the time - for example, it was the seat of the Indo-German Society and the Indo-German Chamber of Commerce. More info

The focus of the German-Indian cooperation lies in the areas of renewable energies and energy efficiency, sustainable urban development as well as environmental and resource protection. The focus of the cooperation is the promotion of climate protection. More info


Indian culture

Hindi हिन्दी is the most widely spoken language in India and the main language of 41% of the population.

There are 14 other official languages ​​including Bengali (8.1%), Telugu (7.2%), Marathi (7%), Tamil (5.9%), Urdu (5%), Gujarati (4.5%) , Kannada (3.7%), Malayalam (3.2%), Oriya (3.2%), Punjabi (2.8%).

Religions: Hindus (79.8%), Muslims (14.2%), Christians (2.3%), Sikhs (1.7%), other and unspecified 2% (2011).

The most popular sports include cricket, hockey and soccer.

Indian cinema Bollywood is world famous.

In many cases, Indian art is tied to religious beliefs, customs and rituals, both in its origin and in its concrete form. Particularly impressive aspects of Indian culture relate, among other things, to classical Indian dance, classical Indian music or architecture.

The diversity of Indian cuisine reflects not only the enormous size of the country, but also its religious and cultural history. In Indian cuisine you can find many elements of oriental cuisine such as pilaf, but also western influences from the former colonial powers such as tomatoes, potatoes and chilli. Curries and the variety of spices are characteristic of the cuisine of the entire subcontinent. Vegetable food plays an important role in Indian cuisine. Many Hindus eat predominantly or exclusively vegetarian, but renouncing meat is not a dogma. However, the consumption of beef is taboo, as the cow has a special meaning in Hinduism. Continue reading

Yoga from India has been on the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites - Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity since 2016: Yoga has an important meaning in Indian society, for example in the areas of health, medicine, education and art. Based on the union of body, mind and soul, yoga aims at mental, spiritual and physical well-being. The techniques used are various physical exercises, meditation, breathing control and spiritual practices. Traditionally, yoga was passed on through the master-disciple principle. Nowadays, yoga ashrams, educational institutions, and community centers also do this job.

More information about the culture of India



Gross domestic product (GDP, nom.) - billion US $ 2020: 3,202

GDP generation (share of nominal gross value added in%) 2017: mining / industry 21.7; Agriculture / forestry / fishing 17.1; Trade / restaurants / hotels 11.6; Transport / logistics / communication 11.2; Construction 7.4; Other 31.1

Economic growth by sector (%, real) 2017: trade / restaurants / hotels 6.6; Transport / logistics / communication 6.6; Construction 5.7; Mining / industry 5.5; Agriculture / forestry / fishing 3.4

More economic data: here and here.

Related Links:

Travel and safety information from the Federal Foreign Office

Representations of India in Germany

More information about India from the Federal Agency for Civic Education

Tourism in India