What is Balos Disease

Baló disease: symptoms, causes, and treatment

Baló's disease is an older neurological disease. Similar to multiple clergy, it affects the myelin in the brain and causes eight symptoms such as cramps and paralysis

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Baló's concentric sclerosis is a disease that destroys the myelin of neurons.

Baló's disease is a rare neurological disorderSimilar to multiple sclerosis, this affects the myelin of the brain and causes symptoms such as muscle cramps, paralysis, or seizures. It is a very disabling disease and there is no cure today.

In this article, we will explain in more detail what the disease consists of, what causes it, what symptoms it causes, and what treatment is common.

What is Baló's disease?

Baló's disease, or Baló's concentric sclerosis, was described by the Hungarian doctor Jozsef Baló in 1928. It is a rare demyelinating disease (in which the myelin, the protective layer on the axons, is damaged) that is considered a variant of multiple sclerosis.

The term "concentric sclerosis" is due to the presence of a pattern of concentric (circular) areas of damaged myelin alternating with areas of relatively intact myelin in different areas of the brain and spinal cord.

In general, Baló's disease is acute and, as in multiple sclerosis, affects young adults, with rapid progression until the person dies. However, cases have also been reported in which progressive, partial and even complete remissions have occurred both spontaneously and following conventional therapeutic treatments.

This rare disease affects men and women alike and The incidence appears to be more common in people of oriental originespecially from countries like China and the Philippines.

Causes and Diagnosis

Although the causes of Baló disease and its variants are now unknown, there are studies that suggest it Autoimmune factors can play a prominent role in its development.

Autoimmune diseases occur when the body's natural defenses against foreign or invading organisms start attacking healthy tissue for reasons unknown, causing inflammation (swelling).

The causes of recovery seen in some patients who may or may not have received the indicated treatment for Baló's disease are also currently unknown Much remains to be investigated In this regard.

Years ago, the diagnosis of this disease was made after an autopsy of the deceased patient. With new neuroimaging techniques, however, earlier detection of the disorder is already possible today.

Professionals usually rely on consistent and specific clinical signs and symptomstry to rule out other neurological disorders. Concentric rings characteristic of this disease can be seen in magnetic resonance images.

Symptoms of the disease

The characteristic symptoms of Baló's disease vary depending on the areas of the brain affected. Demyelinating lesions in the brain can be located in any area (Brain, cerebellum, or brain stem).

The sessions usually consist of irregular demyelination plaques that extend in a series of concentric circles, as we discussed at the beginning. The symptoms caused by the disease are very diverse: Persistent headache, progressive paralysis, involuntary muscle spasms, seizures, mental retardation and cognitive loss or deterioration.

The symptoms caused by Baló's disease can be very disabling and seriously life threatening for the sufferer, progressing rapidly in a few weeks or, conversely, developing more slowly over 2 or 3 years.

treatment

Due to the low incidence of a disorder such as Baló's disease and the limited number of cases reported, no systematic studies on the treatment of the disease have been conducted.

The usual treatment is the same as for people with flare-ups of multiple sclerosis ;; that is, the consumption of high doses of corticosteroids to reduce the severity of acute presentations through their anti-inflammatory effects. The use of immunosuppressants seems to be indicated by the associated poor prognosis.

Treatment to relieve symptoms such as spasticity, weakness, pain, or ataxia includes drug and rehabilitation modalities. However, Baló's disease is fatal and there are no episodes of exacerbation and remission, as is the case with multiple sclerosis.

Related disorders

Baló's disease shares symptoms with another set of neurological disorders, so knowing what they are in order to make a proper diagnosis is important.

1. Adrenoleukodystrophy

It is a rare inherited metabolic disorder that is characterized by Brain demyelination and progressive degeneration of the adrenal gland.

Symptoms of this disorder include: generalized muscle weakness (hypotension), exaggerated reflex responses (hyperreflexia), impaired ability to coordinate movements (ataxia), spastic partial paralysis, and / or tingling or burning sensation in the arms or legs.

2. Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis is a disease of the central nervous system that leads to the destruction of myelin or demyelination of the brain.

The course of the disorder is variable The patient may relapse, relieve symptoms, or stabilize. Symptoms of this disease include double vision (diplopia), involuntary rhythmic movements of the eyes (nystagmus), speech disorders, numbness of the arms and legs, difficulty walking, etc.

3. Canavan leukodystrophy

It is a rare hereditary leukodystrophy that is characterized by progressive degeneration of the central nervous system. Symptoms include progressive mental decline, accompanied by increased muscle tone (hypertension), enlarged brain (megalocephaly), poor head control, and / or blindness.

Symptoms usually start in childhood and may include a general lack of interest in daily life (apathy), muscle weakness (hypotension), and loss of previously acquired mental and motor skills. As the disease progresses, spastic muscle contractions in the arms and legs, lack of muscle strength in the neck, swelling of the brain (megalocephaly), and paralysis may occur.

4. Alexander disease

Alexander disease is an extremely rare progressive metabolic disorder that is often inherited. It is one of the subtypes of leukodystrophy. This disorder is characterized by demyelination and the formation of abnormal fibers (Rosenthal fibers) in the brain.

Symptoms of this disease can be Muscle spasms, mental decline and / or retarded growth. Most babies with Alexander disease have unusually large heads (megalencephaly), stunted growth, and seizures.