What is the true form of the habit

Upbringing, Ideality & Habit. The imperfection of man in John Dewey's educational philosophy

Essay, 2013

15 pages, grade: 1.7

Reading sample

Education stands at the beginning of human existence, established ideals are those birth of human development and habit is the death of all progress - the enemy, so to speak, of every ideal and independent education generally aimed at improvement, and the possibility for one better ones and fairer Moves the world into an unreachable distance.

It is a fact linked to being human that ideality, habit and upbringing shape and influence human existence. To what extent, however, they contribute to the fall or rise of the present, i.e. the current state of affairs, in order to give humanity a rosier future and a more ideal Making the world possible depends on how strongly a person has been influenced by their own upbringing, their own habits and their own perception of ideality - in both a negative and a positive sense.

In this essay I analyze the example of John Dewey's philosophy of education, mainly on the basis of his works Democracy and Education (1916) and The public and its problems (1927) the problem of changing ideals and getting used to these ideals as well as the role of education in relation to ideality and habit. I am trying to put forward the thesis that the upbringing of individual individuals - including the targeted upbringing of states - sometimes unnecessarily complicates the necessary interplay between ideals and habit or can even boycott and torpedo it.

education is at the very beginning, it is the immediate source and the origin that lead to resistance and defense mechanisms, which depending on how strongly an individual or how strongly a state influences its population through education, education is either conducive to progress or hinders progress, and as the case may be how much the habit is stuck to, the necessary (re) formulation of an ideal is prevented. Dewey's educational philosophy lends itself to starting this essay for two reasons. For one, it's almost 100 years since Deweys Democracy and education passed what 100 years of history is called objective and neutral Instance to review Dewey's demands and considerations for a more ideal World offers. We can analyze whether Dewey's ideals can be found in the prevailing habits. The long period of time makes it possible to check the ideals formulated by Dewey, especially to what extent these ideals have flowed into the upbringing and habits of people and have led to a possible improvement there. On the other hand, after a century, democracy has apparently become ideal Form of government established. In our modern times, democracy is considered the epitome of one perfect Form of government that stands for freedom and justice and that strives above all for individuals who are oppressed in their states and who are united by democracy more ideal Hope for the situation in their country and their lives. Therefore, it seems to me to make sense to subject democracy (as a form of government) to a critical reflection, especially because in Germany and other democratic countries in particular, democratic values ​​are (should) be taught in the education system that flow directly into education - However, nobody questions whether this is good or bad - not even Dewey. So the question is: Why does the criticism stop at democracy? Why do individuals always believe in democracy as a form of government that they can achieve (their) freedom? Who took away this freedom from them anyway? Does (absolute) freedom exist at all, as man thinks he has found in democracy?

These questions are fundamental. To answer these questions I try to construct about Dewey's position and to relate it to the imperfection of man and its incompleteness. Everything depends on upbringing (and education).

Dewey referred to in his first chapter of Democracy and education the "education as a vital necessity". Without upbringing, humans would certainly no longer exist, because we come into the world as helpless creatures who are dependent on others, i.e. we are immediate social dependent on other people. Our sociality is not innate, we have to change it in the course of our lives acquireto survive in our world. to survive means in this case that we have to come to terms with others for a lifetime, even if we come to the realization with advanced age that we do not need other people, there were at least two people (our parents) of whom we were social before this realization were dependent. So the social factor of upbringing is out of the question, so I don't want to go into this any further. What is more interesting for Dewey is the gap between the “immature” and the “norms and customs of the elderly”, which in his opinion can only be bridged through education. “The existence of society, like the continuation of life in the biological sense, is dependent on a process of transmission. This transmission takes place when habits of acting, thinking and feeling are transferred from the elderly to the young ”(Dewey 1916, p. 16). This passing on takes place through the transfer of the habits and ideals of the elderly to the immature, i.e. in the worst case that the immature should become a younger version of the elderly, who should also live according to their ideals and with the same habits. In a few cases there is an education for self-thinking, i.e. a form of independent thinkingwhich also does not stop at a critical reflection of the ideals and habits handed down through the education of the old to the immature, just as little as it does with one's own culture, form of government, religion, ethnicity, etc .; in this respect the following maxim applies: Nothing is sacred, everything is a process, whose standstill hinders a necessary development.

The lack of ability in humans to understand the habit as variable and in a constant, infinite process of development, on which one should not rest, shows that the gap between the immature and the old is an unchangeable necessity of human coexistence. This gap shouldn't be caused by upbringing bridged but through upbringing even in parts promoted as bridging this gap is more of a perpetuity counterfeiter Ideals and worse Habits of the elderly contributes than to enable the immature to have an autonomy and immaturity from the elderly through self-thinking and self-judgments more ideal To initiate the world as that of the ancients. If this gap between the immature and the elderly falls, the possibility of the habits and ideals of the elderly as well dies not correct and could be improved to classify and discard or to formulate new ideals.

Such a critical reflection of the ideals and habits of the ancients is only possible if an individual is still able to do so distance. If this distance is missing, there is also no possibility for the immature to live in other To direct paths than that used to Orbits of the ancients. In this way, upbringing turns negative, it misses its real meaning, the individual is deprived of his possibility of being an individual and, as Dewey put it, becomes controlled and sometimes even suppressed - even if Dewey used the concept of Mastery looks quite positive.

So let's keep it simple: Education as Indoctrination tears down the bridge or the gap between the old and the immature, which also destroys the possibility of distinguishing the ideals and habits of the immature from those of the old, since the ideals and habits of the old flow into those of the immature, es thus to an eternity counterfeiter Ideals and worse Habits come canto which the old in particular cling to because they are not clinging to a new (and possibly more ideal) world get used to want.

This thought process raises a new question: Can it at all real Ideals and progress-promoting or good Give habits, when ideals have to be reformulated and habits have to be filed accordingly, so that an improvement (of the world / society) can be brought about? The establishment of new ideals implies that certain habits have to be abandoned, because without the influence of an ideal the habit would remain untouched, so there is no progress if everyone insists on their known habits. Or to put it in Dewey's words: “The pursuit of self-preservation is in the essence of life. Since self-preservation can only be secured through constant renewal, life is a process of self-renewal ”(op. Cit., P. 25). So the more decisive question is how can people who have an affinity for habit and the known change themselves to accept a new ideal instead of always measuring it against the old and their habits and thus inevitably rejecting it?


End of the reading sample from 15 pages


Upbringing, Ideality & Habit. The imperfection of man in John Dewey's educational philosophy
Christian Albrechts University Kiel (Philosophical Seminar)
John Dewey
B.A. Jan-Christian Hansen (Author)
Catalog number
ISBN (eBook)
ISBN (book)
File size
467 KB
New, religion, truth, absolute truth, self-determination
Price (book)
£ 10,99
Price (eBook)
£ 7,99
Cite work
B.A. Jan-Christian Hansen (Author), 2013, Education, Ideality & Habit. The imperfection of humans in John Dewey's educational philosophy, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/264049