Are homeowners responsible for water pipe breaks

Fire Fighting Glossary - Glossary of firefighting

List of definitions of terms and jargon used in fire fighting
Note: This list does not include fire extinguishing equipment, that is, tools and equipment used by firefighters. Information on these terms can be found in the Fire Extinguishing Equipment Glossary . Similarly, although there is a lot of overlap, you can also access that glossary Reference the forest fire terms to provide terminology for this type of fire fighting.
Note: Many of the terms defined here, especially those relating to work systems, team names, procedures, careers, and policies, appear to originate in the United States and do not necessarily apply to fire and rescue services in other English-speaking countries. Call You for example Firefighter (USA) and Retained Firefighter (Great Britain).

Fire fighting jargon includes a broad lexicon of both common and idiosyncratic terms. One problem with trying to make such a list is that much of the terminology used by a given department is specifically defined in their respective operations, so two departments may have completely different terms for the same thing. Depending on who you ask, a security team can be called standby, RIT or RIG or RIC (rapid intervention team / group / crew) or FAST (fire department assistant and search team), for example. In addition, a department can change a definition within its SOP so that one year it is RIT and the next RIG or RIC.

The variability of fire service jargon should usually not be taken into account. Some terms are pretty universal (e.g. standpipe, hydrant, boss). Note, however, that each term defined here is specific to a department or region or at least can be more headstrong than you think.

A

  • 3D zone control : The strategy of 3D zone control is intended to improve the safety of firefighters working in a burning structure. Attempts are made to protect the immediate locality of a room occupied by firefighters by resorting to various defensive measures that (a) limit the fire; (b) remove combustion products safely and effectively; or (c) reduce hazards in the hot gas layers. The overall tactical goal is to provide a more permanent level of protection in structural compartments (safety zones) from which firefighters can be deployed in various fire and rescue functions.
  • A side : In front of the fire station, usually facing the street to the front door, but possibly facing the parking lot where the first set arrives. other sides are marked with B (left), C (rear), D (right) if this is necessary, when talking about fire sectors of the structure or when occupying them become .
  • Aboveground storage tank : Storage tank that is not buried. Compare that underground storage tank. Unburied tanks are more prone to physical damage, and leaks are more likely to be released into the air or the ground than the ground surrounding a buried tank.
  • accelerator : combustible fuel (often liquid) used by some arsonists to increase the size or intensity of the fire. Can also accidentally introduced, though HAZMAT gets caught in a fire.
  • accountability : The process by which rescue workers (fire brigade, police, SAR, ambulance service, etc.) check in with an operations manager or responsible person or inform him that they have arrived at the site of an incident. Through the accountability system, every person is tracked throughout the incident until they are released from the scene by the incident commander or accountability officer. During an extended process, a "call" for accountability may be made at set intervals. This is becoming the standard in the field of emergency services, especially for the safety of emergency personnel. This system can implement a nameplate system or a personal location device (tracking device used by anyone connected to a computer).
  • AFA: Automatic fire alarm / triggering fire alarm
  • Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting (ARFF) : A special category of fire fighting that includes the response, mitigation, evacuation and possible rescue of passengers and crew members of an aircraft that is on a Ground emergency is involved in the airport.
  • Air track : The route by which the air enters the structure to the fire and the subsequent path the smoke needs to leave the structure heated. Also referred to as the "flow path".
  • alarm : (1) System for detecting and reporting unusual conditions such as smoke, fire, flooding, air leakage, HAZMAT release, etc .; (2) a specific assignment of multiple fire service companies and / or units to a particular incident, usually by type of fire; (3) central dispatch center for interpreting alarms and sending resources. Please refer Fire alarm control panel .
  • All companies work : Status report at the scene of the fire indicates that the available manpower is employed and additional resources may be required if the incident is not controlled soon.
  • Ammonium nitrate : Part of ANFO ; Contents of two ships that exploded in the Texas City disaster, killing over 500 people, including all 27 volunteer firefighters at the scene; as well as in warehouses in the port of Beirut.
  • ANFO : Ammonium nitrate-heating oil combination that creates a highly explosive explosive.
  • device : A term normally used by firefighters to describe a portable fire extinguisher, e.g. B. a pumper, a tanker, a cart, etc.
  • Arson : the crime of maliciously (or perhaps recklessly) setting fire to property, especially an apartment. Punishable to different degrees depending on the circumstances. Occasionally occurs as a psychotic act by a mentally ill firefighter.
  • Competent authority (or AHJ): Organization or agency with legal authority to deal with a specific type of incident (e.g. fire, ambulance service, SAR, arson, HAZMAT); may change or overlap if the incident changes, if a fire turns into an arson investigation after the hazard is over, or if a motor vehicle accident turns into police business after the vehicle rescue problems, fire and HAZMAT are over.
  • Auto-aid : An expanded form of mutual assistance agreement between one or more departments or districts in which a mutual assistance response can be sent "automatically" without prior approval from a chief officer.
  • Autoextended Fire : Structural fire that has come out of a window or other opening on one floor and ignited materials above, on another floor or in another room (attic, cockloft).
  • Auto-ignition temperature (AIT) : The temperature at which a gas / air mixture self-ignites. As the temperature rises, the lower flammability limit (LFL) approaches zero. Also known as the Auto-Ignition Temperature (SIT).
  • Available flow : Total amount of water that can be set on fire, depending on the water supply, pump size, hoses and distance from the fire. The incident commander must assess the available flow to determine whether additional devices or streams are required. Please refer Fire flow requirement.

B.

  • BA set: Breathing equipment set consisting of a face mask and a compressed air cylinder. Two types SDBA and EDBA. SDBA or Standard duration breathing apparatus has a cylinder and delivers about 30 minutes of air. EDBA or Extended duration breathing apparatus has two cylinders and delivers about 60 minutes of air.
  • Backdraft: A fire phenomenon causes when heat and heavy smoke (unburned fuel particles) accumulate inside a compartment, the available air depletion and then oxygen / air is reintroduced, the filling from fire triangle and cause rapid burns.
  • Flashback: Also known as "controlled combustion". These Tactics are primarily used in wilderness firefighting related to indirect attacks by deliberately setting fuel on fire within the control line. Mostly used to contain a rapidly spreading fire and to place control lines in places where the fire can be fought according to the firefighter's conditions. This technique was used in the rapid spread of city fires, particularly in San Francisco after the 1906 earthquake.
  • Back burning : Australian name for Misfire above.
  • Backflow preventer: Automatic valve used in hose accessories to ensure that the water only flows in one direction. Used in permanent fire service (FDC) connections to sprinklers and dry standpipes, as well as portable fire fighting equipment.
  • Stretching back : Laying a supply line from the vicinity of the fire structure to a hydrant. (Usually put into the fire by the hydrant on the way.)
  • Bank down : What the smoke does when it fills a room, falls to the floor, creating multiple layers of heat and smoke at different temperatures - the coolest on the floor.
  • Bail out. The act of getting out of a firebox quickly on a ladder. This occurs when rollover conditions are imminent.
  • Explosion of expanding vapors with boiling liquid ( BLEVE ) : Explosion of a pressure vessel containing an overheated material if the rate of vapor expansion exceeds the pressure relief capacity (e.g. steam boiler or LPG tank). If the contents are combustible, the rapidly released vapor can react in a secondary fuel-air explosion, which is usually violent and spectacular.
  • bomber : Australian name for fixed wing fire fighting aircraft. Also known as "water bomber" or "borate bomber".
  • Box (alarm) : A mail slot or other file system that contains a notecard with a scheduled response to an incident type. For example, a structural fire reported on a street would be marked with field 6. The note card in box 6 would contain the list of equipment from various fire stations that should be dispatched to the incident. Assigning a box to a geographic area or emergency number made the process of having the right equipment and personnel on-site the first time it shipped, and helped remove the guesswork of "which department has what" at the scene of the fire. Boxes were later developed to contain escalation procedures - in the event of a "2nd, 3rd, 4th, etc. alarm" the box would contain the next assignment of devices from different fire stations within the community or through mutual assistance. Modern CAD Systems now abstract the box alarm concept and allow box definitions to be triggered based on geographic area, time of day, incident type, weather and any other planned situation. For a specific hydrant area, the "Summer" box assignment contains the usual response from an engine, ladder, or tower truck, as well as rescue services. In winter, however, the box can be modified (automatically or manually) so that it is sent for the first time Water tankers are taken into account to handle the case of frozen fire hydrants. In any case, a tanker is always added to the box if there are no hydrants available for the water supply at the location of a reported fire. The term box comes from the fire alarm pull boxes that have been common in large cities for more than fifty years. This was a telegraph system with bells ringing the box number. This system was in place in some cities from the 1920s (or earlier) until well into the 1960s and 1970s. Boston was one of the first (if not the first) major US cities to have a telegraph alarm system. They installed it in 1852. The Boston Fire Department still uses this system of paper rolls and bells. The modern use of "boxing cards" based on an imaginary boxing location for shipping or advancing is often called the Phantom box system called .

Also an outdated term for an alarm system that was older than phones, with boxes located on street corners in urban areas and connected to the nearest fire station.

  • Buffer zone : The creation of a "buffer zone" implies the use of 3D defensive measures to reduce the potential for fire gases to ignite in the immediate vicinity of a structure occupied by firefighters. This can create a temporary and more local safety zone for firefighters, but it offers far less protection than a "safety zone".
  • buggy : A term usually used for the boss's vehicle, an indication of when the boss responded in a horse-drawn buggy. In the wildland fire, "buggy" is slang for "crew transport". Type I crews are referred to as "Interagency Hotshot Crews" (20-21 people) who are permanently assigned crew transports, and almost all transports use the same model configuration, with little or no differences for the various agencies, the hot-shot crews to have. Hotshot crews have two crew transports and a superintendent vehicle which is a pickup size (one ton) with a utility box configuration. Hotshot crews aren't the only type of crew, and less experienced crews are known as Type II crews, who may not have vehicles permanently assigned. It is seldom heard that a crew transport is called the same. Almost everyone who has a forest fire says "buggy" instead.
  • bus : Another term for ambulance (NYC).
  • Bushfire : Australian name for Wildfire ( please refer below).

C.

  • Call the firefighter : In the United States, firefighters respond to all types of emergencies part-time as needed. Call firefighters to train with their local engine companies in their districts. Call firefighters are deployed in three different ways. "First responder" call firefighters are those units that are fully manned by firefighters with paid calls. These firefighters respond to any emergency in their areas of responsibility and are assisted by full-time companies from adjacent jurisdictions, those units that employ a second engine company from a station that is also manned by a full-time company. These units respond to any responses from multiple units in their district and cover the station if the career firms are committed. "Augmentation" Call Firefighters are assigned to an existing career company and respond directly to the scene to increase the company's staffing levels. See also Retained firefighter (UK)
  • Can : Slang for a pressurized water can.
  • Professional firefighter : (USA) A person whose primary employment is as a fire fighter for a community or other agency or company and who earns most of his or her income from the fire department. See also year-round firefighter (UK)
  • Charge a hose : To make the water pressure available on a hose in preparation for its final use. This is done on site after unfolding the hose, but before entering the fire hazard area. (Also known as "Download the Line")
  • Charged hose : A hose filled with water and under pressure. ready to use. The loaded line is much more difficult to move than one that has not yet been loaded.
  • chauffeur : Please refer engineer .
  • Chief officer : A senior fire department versus a tactical one Company officer . Typical chief officers are the fire chief, assistant and deputy fire chief, battalion or division or district chiefs (who can each oversee the fire chiefs), the watch commanders, and the Scottish fire chief.
  • Open fire : Rapid and intense fire in a chimney Smoke in the accumulated creosote and other combustion ignite by-products. These extend often the Fire on the roof or attic, especially if the chimney is broken or if the mortar gets hot enough to melt.
  • Class a : A fire involving combustible materials such as wood, paper and other natural materials. See fire classes.
  • class B : A fire involving flammable liquids such as gasoline or other fuels. See fire classes.
  • Class C : An electric fire. See fire classes.
  • Class D. : A fire involving metals such as sodium, titanium, magnesium, potassium, uranium, lithium, plutonium and calcium. See fire classes.
  • Class E. (Europe / Australia): A Class A / Class B composite fire that is not also a Class C fire.
  • Class F (Europe / Australia): See class K.
  • Class K : A fire with cooking oils. Technically, this is a subclass of class B. See fire classes.
  • Cockloft : A structural space above the ceiling and under the rafters that often connects adjacent crews and allows the fire to spread sideways, often invisible.
  • Collapse zone : The area around a structure that would contain debris if the building collapsed. This is generally 1.5 times the height of the structure.
  • combustion : When materials smolder or burn. See main article for technical details.
  • Commissioner : Civil Fire Brigade Administrator appointed or elected in some cities, e.g. B. the New York fire chief.
  • Companies : A group of firefighters organized as a team, led by a firefighter, and equipped for specific operational functions. The firefighters in a company almost always work on the same vehicle, but in different shifts. Compare with train and unit.
  • Company officer : A firefighter, usually a lieutenant or captain, who leads a team of two or more firefighters in a tactical company.
  • Compartment fire : An "isolated" fire or a fire "pinched" or "closed" from the rest of the structure. An example of this is a fire in a room with all windows and doors closed to prevent the fire from spreading to other rooms.
  • Tight room : Usually refers to a "confined space rescue". This affects a space with very limited access, little or no room for maneuver, poor air or light, and very likely other hazards. A collapse of a trench, a collapsed building, a rescue of sewers or utility vaults or a problem in and around industrial plants are some examples.
  • conflagration : A large, typically urban fire with numerous structures; loosely defined as the envelope of an area that corresponds to one or more square blocks. Compare with firestorm.
  • "Contained Fire": A fire that is limited to the limits set by fire fighters.
  • Crash tender : A pump that can spray foam used in airports.
  • Crew Resource Management (CRM): Training developed by NASA based on the concept that the main cause of the majority of flight accidents is human error and, in particular, problems with interpersonal communication. The training was adapted for the fire brigade and shows the firefighters how to properly question commands in an emergency scene. This also helps regulators understand that the challenge of a contract should not be interpreted as a threat to their authority.
  • Cross laying : Arrangement of the hose on a pumper so that it can be discharged quickly from both sides of the device; often connected in advance to a pump outlet and equipped with a suitable nozzle. Also known as the Mattydale Lay.

D.

  • Dead Lay: A hose load on a pumper, but not connected to a pump outlet. Often used for larger utility lines.
  • Defensive attack: A predominantly external form of attack, which is often used in direct fire fighting or within a structure, is not possible due to the dangers of direct flames, heat, the collapse of the structure or the presence of hazardous materials. Often, structures that are fully involved are attacked defensively, with the main objective being to protect from nearby exposures. This type of attack is far less effective than an offensive or direct attack. Also known as "surround and drown".
  • Deflagration: An explosion with a propagation front that is different from a supersonic detonation at subsonic speed emotional .
  • Denver Drill: A drill that essentially restores the rescue of Denver firefighter Mark Langvardt. It involves using a lever body and inclined plane (biomechanics) to get a victim out of a narrow window in a narrow hallway (Denver Prop).
  • Denver prop: A training prop designed based on the actual dimensions of the confined area where 16-year-old firefighter veteran Mark Langvardt was killed in 1992. Specifically, it is a 28 "wide, 8" long hallway with a window at one end that is 20 "wide by 28" high and the threshold is 42 "from the floor. The support is used for the Denver drill.
  • Direct attack: A fire attack in which hoses are advanced within a structure and streams of hose are directed towards burning materials.
  • Drain: The amount of water that flows out of a fire hydrant when it is opened. Compare with static flow and residual flow.
  • Determine: (Determine Response) The degree and type of response required based on information provided by a caller reporting an incident. A structured flowchart or algorithm is often used.
  • Shipping : Refers to a person or place designated to handle a call for help by notifying the specific resources required.
  • design : The process of pumping water from a static source below the pump.
  • DOS : Death on the spot.
  • drill : Training during which an emergency is simulated and the trainees or staff go through the individual steps in response if it was a real emergency.
  • Drop tank : A portable tank used on fire scenes to store water from Tenders for Engines
  • Dry riser pipe: An empty pipe in a building that can be connected to hoses so that water can be brought to the bottom of a fire.

E.

  • Electric fire: A fire in which the main source of heat is electricity, which results in the burning of nearby insulation and other materials. It can be dangerous to extinguish with water.
  • EMR : Paramedic.
  • EMS : Ambulance service (s).
  • EMT : Paramedic.
  • engine : A fire truck with a water pump that usually carries hoses, other equipment, and a limited supply of water.
  • engineer : A firefighter who is responsible for driving the engine to the location of the call and running the pumps on an engine to provide adequate water to the fire fighters on the hose. The term can be either a position title or a rank; Usage varies between departments.
  • Engine manufacturer : A group of firefighters assigned to a device with a water pump and equipped with fire hoses and other tools to extinguish fires.
  • Machine house: [archaic] a Fire station that houses an engine company.
  • Engine pressure: The pressure measured at the outlet of the pump in a fire hose.
  • Extended 9-1-1: Electronic system for automatically correlating physical phone lines with information about the location of the caller - a useful tool for dispatchers when the caller has an emergency but cannot speak.
  • Evacuation: Removing personnel from a hazardous area, especially a HAZMAT incident, burning building, or other emergency. Also refers to removing firefighters from a structure that could collapse.
  • Evolution: Uniform sequence of practiced steps by the troops, the common tasks such as selecting and placing ladders, stowing hoses in the Tube bed , Commissioning of hoses and tools in certain patterns; should lead to predictability in emergencies.
  • Exothermic reaction: Chemical reaction that gives off heat, such as B. Combustion.
  • Discoverer: A young adult between the ages of 14 and 21 who is learning the basics of fire fighting.
  • Exposure: Fire in the vicinity of fire that may result from the transfer of heat or burning material from the main fire, typically by convection or radiation. Can range from 12 meters to several miles depending on the size and type of fire or explosion.
  • External attack: A method of extinguishing a fire without entering the building. Often used when such a large part of the building is involved in a fire that putting it into the structure does little or no risk to the safety of firefighters. Can be a temporary measure if there are not enough staff on site to set up an entry team and a rescue team (to rescue the entry team). Also as Surround and known drowning. Compare that Internal attack .
  • liberation : Removal of a trapped victim, such as B. Rescuing a vehicle, rescuing in confined spaces or rescuing trenches; sometimes with hydraulic spreader , Jaws of Life or other technical devices.
  • ETOH : The chemical abbreviation for ethanol or ethyl alcohol, also used to describe someone believed to be intoxicated.

F.

  • FAST (or FAST): Fire service assistant and search team (also as Fast access team or Rapid intervention team / -mannschaft) - firefighters who stand by to rescue other firefighters within a structure; an implementation to support the Two-in-two-out rule ; may have specific training, experience and tools. While all of these versions of the name for a firefighter rescue team have either been used in multiple areas or continue to be used, the National Incident Management System (NIMS) has determined that the Rapid Intervention Team ("RIC") will be the national term. Current federal government education programs are in the process of standardizing these and other terms according to DHS and FEMA. FAST operations were officially commissioned after the Worcester, MA fire that killed 6 firefighters after becoming disoriented in the smoke and running out of breath.
  • FDC (Fire service connection): Place at which the pumping device is connected to a standpipe and / or a sprinkler system of a building. Usually a 3 "female connection.
  • Fire barn : Another term for Fire station . Originally it referred to a stable that housed horses and the fire fighting equipment they pulled. Although it can be used colloquially to describe such a structure, the term is most commonly used today in rural areas.
  • Fire protection : Especially in hilly or mountainous areas, roads or paths are cut by the brush with a tractor, bulldozer or other construction machinery. The purpose of these is to have an area with no brush and therefore no fuel, so hopefully a fire will burn out instead of jumping into another area with a brush. Also to ensure that the vehicle has access to brush areas.
  • Fire fan Someone with a significant interest (a fan) in fire and rescue services, but who is not an active member of those services.
  • Fire protection code (Fire protection code): Regulations on fire protection and the safety of flammable substances, explosives and other dangerous processes and occupations.
  • Fire complex: (US Complex fire ) Fire area - Many of the areas have multiple fires with multiple fronts.
  • Fire protection technology: Scientific design of materials, structures and processes for fire protection
  • Fire escape: A building structure placed outdoors to aid in the safe evacuation of occupants during an emergency. can be horizontally across a Firewall be connected beyond or vertically to a roof or (preferably) to the ground, possibly with a counterweighted span to prevent access to intruders.
  • Program for the investigation and prevention of Deaths at Firefighters (FFFIPP) - Program administered by the National Institute for Safety and Health at Work (NIOSH), a division of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). It conducts independent investigations into the deaths of firefighters in the United States, also known as LODD (Line of Duty Deaths). The program objectives are: 1.) better definition of the characteristics of fatalities among firefighters, 2.) development of recommendations for the prevention of fatalities and injuries and 3.) dissemination of prevention strategies to the fire service.
  • Firefighter : Individuals who respond to fire alarms and other emergencies for fire fighting, rescue, and related tasks.
  • Fire department assistant and search team: Please refer FAST.
  • Flow of fire : The amount of water that is pumped onto a fire or required to extinguish a hypothetical fire. A critical calculation in the light of the principle that an ordinary fire will not be extinguished if there is not enough water to dissipate the heat of the fire.
  • Fire gas ignition : "Ignition of accumulated combustion gases and combustion products that are in a combustible state or are transported in this. There is a wide range of events that can be conveniently grouped under the heading of Fire Gas Ignitions (FGI), and such phenomena can broadly be defined as -. Such ignition is usually caused by the introduction of an ignition source into a premixed state of combustible gases; or the transport of such gases to a source of ignition; or the transport of a fuel-rich gas mixture to an area that contains oxygen and an ignition source. The ignition is not dependent on the effect of the air flow / oxygen in the direction of an ignition source, which is clearly recognized as a backwater event.
  • Fire reason: The area of ​​application at the scene of the fire; Area in which the Incident Commander the Has control. Also used as the name of the radio frequency to be used by units operating in the fire ground, as in " Answerer Units switch to Reason of fire.
  • Fire station Another term for Fire station .
  • Fire hazard: Materials, structures, or processes that can cause a fire, cause a fire to grow undetected, or prevent people from escaping a fire.
  • Fire station: Another term for Fire station .
  • Fire hydraulics: The study of pumps, hoses, pipes, accessories, and tools used to move water or other extinguishing media from a water supply to a fire.
  • Fire inspector: A person responsible for granting permits and enforcing the Fire Protection Act including any necessary inspections of the premises, such as before (or during) a large indoor gathering.
  • Fire line: Establish a fire scene boundary for public safety and identify the area in which firefighters will be working.
  • Fire load (Btu / sq ft): An estimate of the amount of heat given off during normal combustion of all fuel in a given space. e.g. a bedroom or a lumberyard. More casual the amount and type of content in a given room.
  • Firefighter : Administration and investigation office for fire protection and arson investigations.
  • Firefighter : A person charged with organizing and managing fire fighters. See also Company Officer and Chief officer .
  • Fire point : Temperature at which materials emit flammable gases that can withstand fire, typically higher than that Flash point . Temperature at Rollover .
  • fire Department : Special police officers from a fire brigade who are supposed to ensure the safety of emergency scenes as well as general support for the fire brigade and other authorities
  • Fire protection: Fire protection ; Standards to minimize the risk of fire. In some departments also the name of the department responsible for promoting fire protection and compliance with fire protection regulations in the community.
  • Fire protection week: An annual observation of fire safety education in the United States and Canada that since 1925 has often included lectures or demonstrations by firefighters sponsored by the National Fire Protection Association.
  • Fire resistant: Materials designed or treated for an elevated fire point.
  • Fire station: A structure that, in addition to devices and equipment, often also includes living spaces and training facilities for the deployment of fire fighters on duty.
  • Firestorm: A fire that is big enough to noticeably create its own wind conditions.
  • Fire Tetrahedron: The fire tetrahedron is based on the components of igniting or extinguishing a fire. Each component represents a property that is necessary to maintain a fire: fuel, oxygen, heat and chemical chain reaction. Deletion is based on removing or disrupting one of these properties.
  • Fire triangle: An outdated model for understanding the main components required for fire: heat, fuel, and oxygen. See also Fire tetrahedron for the model currently used in fire fighting.
  • Firewall: Building structure for retarding the horizontal spread of fire from one area of ​​a building to another; often through Fire protection regulations regulated and required to have self-closing doors and fire-retardant construction.
  • Firefighter: Appointed to the post of issuing rural fire permits in a particular country, as well as maintaining equipment and workforce readiness to respond to forest fires.
  • Fire station: Fixed or mobile patrols watching for signs of fire or the risk of fire so that the necessary alarm can be triggered quickly or preventive action can be taken. Typically set up in commercial, industrial, and multi-purpose buildings, typically by building and property maintenance or security personnel when the on-site fire and / or sprinkler / suppression system is out of service for repairs, or a fire brigade reassigned to the scene is a large fire to keep watch over a long period in the event of re-ignition. Also known as "Reflash Watch".
  • First due date: Refers to either the first device to arrive at the scene of the fire or the area in which a company is likely to be the first to arrive at the scene of the fire.
  • Fit test: Regular testing of how well the face piece of a respirator fits a particular firefighter.
  • Flameover: Is also known as Called rollover. The ignition of heated fire gases only on the ceiling. While dangerous to firefighters, this is not as deadly as Flashover.
  • Flammable area, limit values: The percentage of vapors mixed with air that can withstand fire; Outside of the limits, the mixture is either too lean or too fat to burn.
  • Flash point: Lowest temperature at which a material emits flammable vapor in the air mixture. Higher than that Flash point the same material.
  • Rollover: simultaneous ignition of combustibles in an enclosed space, as if materials reach theirs at the same time Focus ; can also become one Run rollover .
  • foam : Extinguishing agent obtained by mixing the Foam concentrate is formed with water and aerating the solution for expansion. Gets great for suffocation Class A or B fires used . Can be injected into streams of fire at adjustable concentrations.
  • Foam concentrate : Raw foam liquid as it rests in its reservoir before the introduction of water and air.
  • Forced entry : Access to a forceful area to disable or bypass safety devices, usually with forceful tools, sometimes with tools specialized for entry (e.g. Halligan, K tool ).
  • Forward: A method of stringing the water supply hose from a water source to a fire scene; compare to Reverse Lay.
  • Freelancing: dangerous situation in an incident in which a person performs tasks alone or without assignment; Violation of the Accountability Process of Staff .
  • Friction loss: Reduction of the flow in one Fire hose due to friction between the water and the hose lining. Mainly depends on the diameter, the type and length of the hose and the amount of water flowing through it (GPM).
  • Facade: The size of a building facing a street.
  • Fuel-fired fire: Free combustion of a fire, characterized by a supply of air in excess of that required for complete combustion of the fuel source or available pyrolates.
  • Completely devoured: The Concept of Resizing means that fire, heat and smoke are so prevalent in a structure that internal access must wait for fire currents to be applied.

G

  • Gas cooling or 3D water mist: Branching technique in which the right amount of water spray can cause the gases to contract without creating too much steam. Can help as a control measure in small subjects. This is not an extinguishing technique as it is still important to apply water to the surfaces.
  • GPM : Gallons per minute, or how many gallons per minute a device will pump.
  • GPM method ("Gallons Per Minute"): Calculation of how much water in GPM is required to extinguish a given volume of fire under the given circumstances (e.g. fuel class, containment, exposure, etc.).
  • Fat fire: A fire that uses cooking oil or other flammable cooking or lubricants of any kind. Also known as F- (Europe, Australia) or K-fire (America).
  • Brat: Reported an incident involving people.
  • Dig: Rescuing a person from the building.
  • Good access: The ability to access a patient or an exit point without assistance

H.

  • Hand tub : A kind of historic fire engine in which a "tub" had to be filled by a bucket brigade and then pumped onto the fire by hand. An advance from the hand tub was to a fire truck that was still hand-pumped but had a suction hose to supply water. Hand tubs were hand drawn to the fire or some were designed to be drawn by horses.
  • Hand lifter: For manually advancing a line (hose) instead of pulling it out of the hose bed of a mobile device. Usually applies to utility lines. See Skulldrag
  • Hard line : A smaller hose, about an inch in diameter, used by firefighters to clean equipment.
  • danger : a source of risk of personal injury or property damage; Fire hazard refers to conditions that may result in a fire or explosion, or increase the spread of an accidental fire, or prevent the escape from being made of the fire. According to the health and safety regulations for employees, employers are generally obliged to provide a workplace without danger. See also Fire protection and HAZMAT .
  • HAZMAT : Hazardous materials, including solids, liquids, or gases which, if released or triggered, could cause personal injury, death, or damage.
  • Head pressure: How to measure the pressure of a stream of water. By measuring the "breakover" point, the point at which the water flow breaks apart and falls back to the ground is a water flow directed perpendicularly into the air. This is usually done with a 25mm diameter hose and a fixed nozzle. When a flow of water collapses at 15 m (50 feet), the pump is said to have 15 m (50 feet) head pressure. Current measurements of pump power are now in GPM, gallons per minute.
  • Helitack : A rotating winged (helicopter) fire-fighting aircraft like the Erickson Skycrane that can be modified to contain 9500 liters of water or retarder.
  • High pressure system: An additional pumping system to pressurize the water supply, sometimes used in a major fire or when using more than one hydrant.
  • Skyscraper: Any building that is higher than three or four floors, depending on local usage, where firefighters must climb stairs or air ladders to gain access to the upper floors.
  • High-rise pack: A Shoulder load Hose with a nozzle and other tools used to connect the hose to a Standpipe required are .
  • Hook ladder : Short ladder with a long hook on top. The hook is used to smash a window and grab the window frame while the firefighter is climbing. With one or two, it's easy to walk up and down floors out of reach of other ladders or when there isn't room to set up a ladder.
  • Horizontal standpipe: A process of running a large diameter, large diameter hose from a pumper towards a fire structure, usually with a closed star on the end allowing some hand lines to be connected. This effectively brings the water supply closer to the fire and greatly extends the reach of the hand lines when the device cannot be placed closer to the fire structure.
  • Hose packing: A hose pack is a backpack that contains a fire hose in a pre-configured arrangement that sometimes consists entirely of a fire hose without a bag.
  • Fire hose vacuum: A small pneumatic device that removes air residue from the inside of a fire hose, making it smaller and a little stiffer
  • Hotshot crew: A fully trained group of around twenty people who specialize in fighting forest fires with little or no outside logistical support.
  • Hot wash: A meeting, usually held after an incident has ended, to discuss the successes and failures of the response and tactics that were previously better prepared for the next incident.
  • Hot zone : contaminated area of ​​the HAZMAT incident that needs to be isolated; requires suitable protective equipment to enter and decontaminate on exit; The minimum hot zone distance from unknown material with an unknown release is 330 feet (United Nations Emergency Response Guidebook). surrounded by a "warm zone" in which decontamination takes place.

I

  • IAFF : Acronym "International Association of Fire Fighters".
  • IAP : Acronym, "Incident Action Plan" A plan made up of the strategic objectives, tactical objectives, and support requirements for the incident. All incidents require a plan of action. In the case of simple incidents, the action plan is usually not available in writing, while in the case of large / complex incidents the action plan must be documented in writing. When the process is complete, the IAP will have a number of attachments.
  • IDLH : Any situation that is classified as directly hazardous to life and health. More narrowly defined by OSHA. See main IDLH article . An area of ​​maximum danger for firefighters. Often requires an increased Personnel responsibility .
  • IFSTA : Acronym "International Fire Service Training Association". A major publisher of training materials for firefighters.
  • IMARP : Acronym "Indiana Mutual Aid Response Plan". For quickly activating and responding to aid to a community in the event of a local disaster. These events can include a major fire, train derailment, hazardous material incidents, forest fires, domestic terrorism, and other events that can overwhelm the local fire department serving the community and their normal mutual aid resources.
  • Incident Commander (or IC): The officer responsible for all activities in the event of an incident. See Incident Command System.
  • Security officer for incidents: The officer responsible for the security of the scene in the event of an incident. See Incident Command System. Optional for incidents other than HAZMAT.
  • Initial stage fire : A small fire that can be put out with portable fire extinguishers or other commonly available means.
  • Indirect attack: Fire-fighting method that involves pumping water on materials above or near the fire, causing the splash to rain on the fire. This is often used when a structure is not safe to enter.
  • First attack: First point of attack on a fire using hose assemblies or fuel separators to prevent the fire from spreading further.
  • Interface zone (also Interface between Wildland and structure or Interface between City and wild country ): The zone where forest fires threaten structures or structural fires threaten wildlands, e.g. B. in residential areas adjacent to forests. This requires both forest fire fighting and structural fire fighting in the same location, which requires very different tactics and equipment.
  • Internal attack : Deploy a team of firefighters into the burning structure to extinguish a fire from inside the structure and to minimize property damage from fire, smoke and water. Requires at least four fully equipped firefighters: an entry team of at least two to enter the structure and fight the fire, and two stand by to rescue or relieve the entry team (see two in, two out). If the input teams can't put the fire out, it can lead to a External attack .
  • IMT : Acronym for Incident Management Team . In the United States, there are predominantly five types of Incident Management Teams (IMTs). An incident like a forest fire is initially managed by local fire departments or fire departments. However, when the fire becomes complex, additional resources will be required to deal with the emergency and higher level management training and skills will be required. IMTs are "typed" according to the complexity of the incidents they can manage and are part of an incident command system.
An incident management team provides the necessary command and control infrastructure to manage the logistical, tax, planning, operational, safety and community problems in connection with the incident / emergency.
Incident management begins as the smallest unit and escalates according to the complexity of the emergency. The five types of IMTs are as follows:
  • Type 5: Local village and community level - a "pool" of mainly firefighters from several neighboring departments who were trained in command and general staff positions in the first 6 to 12 hours of a major or complex incident.
  • Type 4: City, county, or fire district level - A specific team of fire, ambulance and possibly law enforcement officers from a larger and generally more populous area, usually within a single jurisdiction (city or county), activated when needed To manage a major or complex incident during the first 6 to 12 hours and possibly transition to a Type 3 IMT.
  • Type 3: State or metropolitan level - a permanent team of trained personnel from various departments, organizations, agencies and jurisdictions within a state or region of the DHS Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) that is activated to contribute to incident management Support incidents that extend beyond a region's operating time. Type 3 IMTs respond throughout the state or much of the state, depending on country-specific laws, guidelines, and regulations.
  • Type 2: National and State Level - a state or state certified team; have less training, staff, and experience than Type 1 IMTs and are typically deployed on smaller national or state incidents. There are currently 35 Type 2 IMTs working in collaboration between federal, state, and local land and emergency management agencies.
  • Type 1: National and State Level - a state or state certified team; is the most robust IMT with the most training and experience. There are currently 16 Type 1 IMTs working in collaboration between federal, state, and local land and emergency management agencies.
Although the primary purpose is to respond to forest fires, an incident management team can respond to a variety of emergencies including fire, flood, earthquake, hurricane, tornado, tsunami, civil unrest, spillage of hazardous materials, and other natural or man-made incidents.
The five subsystems of an incident management team are as follows:
  • Incident Command System (ICS) is a structure of on-site management-level positions suitable for managing incidents.
  • Training development and implementation of training courses.
  • Qualifications and Certifications National standards for qualifications and certification for ICS positions.
  • Development, control, sources and dissemination of NIIMS publications by the National Wildfire Coordinating Group (NWCG).
  • Assistive technology and systems to support an emergency response, e.g. B. Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Orthophoto Mapping, National Fire Risk Assessment System, Remote Automatic Weather Stations, Automatic Lightning Detection Systems, Infrared Technology and Communications
  • ISO rating: (Classification Rating for Public Service Insurance Services Office) This is a rating published by the Insurance Services Office. Insurance companies use this number in many states to determine homeowner insurance rates. Recently, several insurance companies, including State Farm, introduced a zip code and actual loss based system in several states that the ISO (PPC) system no longer uses.
  • Iron: The flat head ax fits the Halligan Bar. Firefighters often refer to this as crossed irons or married iron as the halligan bar can fit on the ax head.

J.

  • Jump sheet: The sheet of a group of firefighters that people trapped in a burning building can jump on. (obsolete)
  • Job: Northeast US Firefighter Slang for structure fire
  • Junior firefighter : (USA) A young adult between the ages of 14 and 18 who is learning the basics of firefighting from firefighters who typically work in a volunteer fire department

L.

  • Head company: A group of firefighters, officers, and engineers occupying a ladder truck.
  • Ladder shifter (or Ladder bracket ) A technique used to quickly climb a ladder, face first, out of a window. After exiting the window, the firefighter quickly turns 180 degrees to descend the ladder normally.
  • Layout: Establish water supply. Usually carried out by the first due engine company. Tell the next one due to pick it up.
  • Level I, II, III incident: A HAZMAT term that indicates the severity of the incident and the type of response that may be required if Level III is the largest or most dangerous. In some countries, level 0 is used for a small dangerous goods incident that can be handled by the responding fire department. However, the incident commander would like either a phone or an on-site consultation with someone on the Hazardous Materials team.
  • Life Security Code: NFPA publication. Originally known as the "Building Exits Code".
  • Lifeline: A brand for a wireless emergency call unit that initiates a phone call to an emergency dispatcher when a button is pressed.
  • Line or hose line A hose assembly indicated by its size i.e. 1 "3/4, 1", 2 ", 5"
  • Line loss: Please refer Friction loss.
  • LODD (Line of Duty Death) The death of a firefighter on duty.
  • Power line: A fire hose under the pressure of a pump. Also a live electrical line, which can pose a danger to the fire brigade.
  • To live in: A firefighter who usually lives in the fire station or fire station
  • Loaded stream: A non-freezing solution of an alkali metal salt (usually potassium acetate, citrate, lactate, or carbonate) with water. The solution has long been used to adjust pressurized water extinguishers to freezing temperatures. When applied as a stream, the mixture exhibits somewhat improved fire fighting properties against certain types of fires (such as flat petroleum fat and cooking oil fires) compared to normal water, but is not a suitable substitute for Class B or K fire extinguishers A type of charged stream known as a "wet chemical" that is highly effective at extinguishing cooking oil fires with a special mist-producing applicator. In the form of a spray or fine mist, charged electricity products (particularly potassium lactate and potassium acetate) have shown almost ten times the effectiveness of water mist against jet fuel fires and are being investigated in certain applications as a possible replacement for Halon 1301.
  • Lower Flammability Limit (LFL): The lowest volume percentage concentration of combustible vapor or gas in air that, under certain conditions, burns with a flame.

M.

  • Manufacture pumps: To increase the number of pumps in the event of an incident, e.g. B. "Manufacture pumps 10"
  • Mass accident (MCI): Any incident where a large number of injured persons require emergency medical treatment and transport to a medical facility. The exact number of patients making an incident a "mass accident" is defined by departmental procedures and may vary from area to area.
  • Main box: A primary fire alarm relay box connected to a building alarm system that monitors fire alarm train stations and detectors throughout the building and automatically forwards all building alarms to the local fire department. Usually accompanied by a message field that uses indicator lights or other devices to record exactly where the activated train station or the activated detector is located in the building. Common in multi-storey office and residential buildings that are equipped with sprinkler systems or smoke and heat detectors.
  • Main power : (also monitor , Flood gun ) A large nozzle, either portable or attached to a pumper, capable of throwing large amounts of water over relatively long distances.
  • Mattydale location (Mattydale Last): The concept pre-assembled Lines of attack to store on a motor and store it so that it is attached to the sides of the Device instead of at the back are displayed . The technique is commonly called Cross Lay called and enables the quick deployment of Lines of attack from both sides of the contraption .
  • Exit means: The way out of a building in an emergency; can be from outside through door, window, hallway or fire escape; Local building codes often dictate the size. Location and type according to the number of occupants and the type of occupancy.
  • Multiple alarms: A request from an operations manager for additional staff and equipment. [e.g. "Send me a 2nd alert." "Send a 2nd alert." "2. Raise the alarm".]] Each additional alarm (level) usually contains a predetermined set of additional devices and employees, which vary by department and sometimes depending on the nature of the incident.
  • Helping each other : An agreement between nearby fire service companies to deal with emergencies each other by responding with available manpower and equipment. When these resources can be requested or dispatched without special approval from an officer at the time of an incident, this is sometimes referred to as "automatic" mutual assistance.
  • MVA: Motor vehicle accident
  • MDC: Mobile data computer

N.

  • National system Near miss reporting to firefighters - a program developed by the IAFC to prevent injuries and save firefighters' lives by gathering, sharing and analyzing near miss experience. It gives firefighters the opportunity to learn from each other through real-world experience, formulates strategies to reduce injuries and fatalities for firefighters, and seeks to improve the fire brigade's safety culture.
  • Neutral level : The separation between the positive pressure area and the negative pressure area developed in a compartment fire (sometimes referred to as the smoke / air interface). The neutral level can be clearly seen when there is a heat balance in the fire room. 3D firefighting techniques can help keep the NP as high as possible, which maximizes visibility and makes conditions more bearable for trapped occupants or firefighters. Compliance with the level of the neutral level is a key principle for successful, safe and efficient fire fighting in compartments.
  • NFPA : The National Fire Protection Association, a publisher that provides a methodology for developing a range of standards and practices for * firefighting, equipment and fire protection in the United States and has adopted it in many other countries. Also slang for "No Free Publications Available" ; is used as a criticism of publishers who produce "must-have" documents that are prohibitively expensive.
  • NIOSH: National Institute for Safety and Health at Work. A US agency responsible for investigating workplace deaths, including firefighters.
  • NIMS: The National Incident Management System. A federally mandated program to standardize command terminology and procedures. This standardizes the communication between fire departments and other authorities. It is based on simple terms used nationwide. Currently, the US federal government's required DHS and FEMA training programs are in the process of standardizing many terms and procedures under NIMS.

Ö

  • Occupancy: The concept of zoning and security code that defines how a structure may be used and occupied, which in turn dictates the necessary security structures and procedures.
  • Occupancy class: General categories of structures for the purpose of safety planning, e.g. B. for hospitals, assemblies, industrial, single-family houses, residential buildings, commercial establishments, etc. Further breakdown according to the types of hazards associated with certain occupancies, e.g. B. Gas stations.
  • Hose for occupant use: Lighter Fire hose with one Diameter of 1½ Inch that before the arrival of the Firefighters with the Standpipe for emergencies by the residents of the building is pre-coupled . Often accessible by glass is broken to unlock a secure enclosure.
  • Offensive attack: Method of fire fighting in which firefighters bring water or other extinguishing agent directly to the source of the fire rather than being pumped in that general direction from a safe distance. Typical of tubing being brought inside a building instead of staying outside, also known as "surround and drown".
  • On-call service : Personnel who can be called (and paid) to respond to an incident if necessary; a kind of "voluntary" fire brigade.
  • On / Off the run : UK term when equipment or crew is available or unavailable to respond to incidents. Also referred to as "in service" or "out of service".
  • OSHA : US government agency that deals with the regulation of occupational safety, especially in hazardous occupations such as fire fighting.
  • External fire: Urban fire that is not inside a building or vehicle and is often burning garbage that yourself may extend to nearby buildings or vehicles if not handled properly. A suburb-, Interface or rural Outside fire can also be a Be forest fire .
  • Overhaul: Late stage in the fire fighting process, during which the burned area is carefully examined for any remaining heat sources , the the fire can re-ignite . Often falls with Recovery work together to prevent further loss of the structure or its content as well as the determination of the cause of the fire and the preservation of evidence.
  • Overpressure area: The area at the top of a compartment or structure (above the neutral plane) where the heated layer of smoke exerts positive pressure.
  • Oxidizing agent: A hazardous material that contains oxygen (or certain other chemicals, especially fluorine) that can combine with nearby fuel to start or fuel a fire.

P.

  • Packables: A term used to refer to fire fighters who are certified and trained with SCBA equipment.
  • Pencil: The pencil technique is created by pointing the nozzle in a straight line Beam pattern set using a series of short bursts of water aimed at burning materials. This helps reduce the production of flammable gases by cooling the burning walls and ceilings below their ignition point.
  • Personal alarm security system: Please refer PASS device in the glossary of fire extinguishers.
  • Personnel Responsibility Report ("PAR"): End result of the Personnel responsibility system. The best report are all hands, A-OK , worse still, the Cadre is missing. You will often hear the command to ask for a "PAR" if something has changed in the fire place. Often the answer is "Engine 4, PAR". or "Motor 4 has PAR." Some incident command systems set a PAR for all employees on the fire floor at certain time intervals during a working fire.
  • Personnel responsibility system: Tagging, "passport" or any other system for identifying and tracking personnel in the event of an incident, particularly those entering and exiting an IDLH area; should enable a quick determination of who is at risk or lost in the event of sudden changes at the crime scene.
  • Registered persons: A term that is used to confirm or believe that people require fire rescue.
  • Pilot: In mutual assistance situations, a "pilot" is a member of the local department who drives a mutual assistance engine to ensure a proper direct link. A pilot is usually picked up at the local train station before going to the scene.
  • Train: A division of a fire brigade led by a firefighter with the rank of captain or lieutenant so that one of a company's platoons is on duty at some point. Also known as the "clock". In many areas the word "train" is used to describe the different shifts in the fire service. For example A, B or C platoon.
  • Plug: Slang term for a fire hydrant. This is preserved from the days when the water pipes actually had holes in the tops that were sealed with a tapered wooden plug after use. Many firefighters want to keep this word while many others feel that it should be replaced with the exact term "hydrant".
  • Overpressure: Pressure higher than atmospheric; Used in respirators and in under Used pressure standing stairwells to reduce smoke or fumes entering through small openings. High volume portable positive pressure fans are now carried by fire departments and used to pressurize the fire department building during an indoor attack to control smoke and heat ventilation where desired.
  • Pre-Arrival Instructions: Instructions a dispatcher to a caller until emergency units can arrive.
  • Planning before and after a fire : Information collected by fire safety officers to aid in the identification of hazards and the equipment, accessories, personnel, skills and procedures required to deal with a potential incident.
  • Pre-planning: Fire protection strategy with visits to potentially dangerous people for inspection, follow-up analysis and recommendations for action in the event of certain incidents. Not to be confused with Post-planning .
  • Probie: (also Beginner ) new firefighter on probation (a period of time during which his skills are improved, refined, tested and assessed).
  • Primary search: A search that is usually done once the cart or special service is on site to look for anyone who may be in the burning structure.
  • Primary fire: British classification for a fire affecting property, e.g. B. Buildings or vehicles.
  • Professional firefighter: All firefighters are classified as "professionals" by both the International Association of Fire Chiefs (IAFC) and the International Association of Firefighters (IAFF Union). All firefighters are required by most state laws and general practice to meet the same standards of training and equipment, pass the same transportation exams, and perform the same work under the same hazards. There are two recognized categories of professional firefighters: Volunteer firefighter who can not receive payment or even for services and Career firefighters whose primary employment and source of income is in the fire department.
  • Public alarm: Means for the public to report a fire, including telephone, pull boxes on the street corner, building pull stations, and manual bells or sirens in rural areas.
  • Pumper: A fire engine with a water pump and water tank.
  • Pump operator, technician: (also chauffeur ): Person who is responsible for operating the pumps on a pumper and usually for driving the pump to an incident.
  • Pump alignment: Device with a wheel ladder. (mostly out of date).
  • Pump ladder : Device with 13.5 m ladder, water and pump. (Modern replacement of the Pump Escape).
  • Pumper company: Squad or company that one Fire truck (Pumper) manned and performed tasks involving bringing water to the fire.
  • Pyrolysis: Process of converting a solid substance into flammable vapors by increasing its temperature. See also evaporation of liquids.

Q.

  • Fast attack: In common practice, the practice is using a pre-connected handline that is pulled out of a pumper immediately upon arrival in a fire and only supplied with tank water to launch a fire attack in the hopes of putting down a fire quickly. before a utility line and other aspects of operations are fully in place.
  • Quick hit: See "Reset"
  • Quarter: Another word to describe the fire station.