Which is the mother branch of engineering
Wreck diving is a special type of diving. Most wreck diving is done on shipwrecks, but airplane wrecks are also often explored by divers. There are also a smaller number of more exotic wrecks to be dived at, from trains and buses to collapsed ship radar stations.
All divers require some form of training, but many divers undergo additional training prior to wreck diving. Wreck diving is often divided into three types:
Non-penetration, ie. Swim over and around the wreck.
Limited penetration into an overhead environment, subject to a limit of 40 meters (depth plus length of penetration).
Full penetration, deeper into the wreck area.
Diving without penetration can usually be safely done by most certified divers. Divers are often advised to complete additional training, such as a specialty course for wreck divers, before devoting themselves to diving with limited penetration. Full penetration diving is viewed as a type of technical diving that requires significant additional experience, training, and equipment.
Almost every diving destination in the world offers some form of wreck diving. In many areas this is an alternative to diving on coral reefs and other reefs. In other areas, the wrecks are the only diving attraction.
Diving publications often print articles about the "Top 10 Wreck Dives in the World," and the 10 wrecks in a particular article are usually taken from the following list:
Bianca C, sunk off Grenada in the Caribbean in 1961.
Blackjack B17, a Flying Fortress bomber that crashed off Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea.
Captain Keith Tibbetts, a Russian destroyer that was sunk as an artificial reef off Cayman Brac in the Cayman Islands.
Fujikawa Maru, possibly the best of the many excellent WWII shipwrecks in the Truk Lagoon. Some argue that the top 10 dive wrecks in the world should be filled exclusively from the Truk Lagoon wrecks.
SMS Markgraf, a WWI German warship, probably the best of many German warships sunk in Scapa Flow, Scotland. Some claim that the SMS Köln is the best wreck in the anchorage.
Nagato, a Japanese WWII battleship that was sunk as part of a nuclear test (closed to divers) in Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands. Other divers claim that the aircraft carrier USS Saratoga is the lagoon's main attraction.
USS Oriskany, a US aircraft carrier deliberately sunk as an artificial reef off Pensacola, Florida.
SS President Coolidge in front of Vanuatu.
SS Thislegorm, a WWII British shipwreck sunk from a mine off Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt, in the Red Sea.
Umbria, a WWII shipwreck, was sunk off the Sudanese port.
SS Yongala, sunk in a cyclone off the coast of Ayr, Australia in 1911.
MS Zenobia, a roll-on roll-off ferry that sank off Larnaca, Cyprus.
The authors of these articles may have limited knowledge of wrecks they have not visited, and the word “top” is often equated in journalism with the most popular one that is easily accessible and near a resort, one of theirs Advertisers heard.
However, there are a variety of other very popular wreck dives around the world including:
Regional articles with wreck dive sites:
Diving in Australia
Diving in the British Virgin Islands
Diving in the Cape Peninsula and False Bay, Cape Town, South Africa
Diving in Durban, South Africa
Diving in Port Elizabeth, South Africa
Dive sites in Saipan, Micronesia
Diving in Sweden
HMS Birkenhead, Danger Point, South Africa
In addition to basic diving training, many people who want to dive on wrecks seek further training, both for their own safety and to have more fun.
Many recreational divers training organizations offer specialty wreck diving courses to complement basic training. According to statistics from PADI (the largest diving training organization in the world), wreck diving is the most popular specialty course.
The specialty courses for wreck divers focus on the particular dangers inherent in wrecks and introduce divers to the basic skills of reel handling so that they can enter the wreck more safely. Most agencies impose a total depth of 40 meters plus penetration for recreational divers.
Also, keep in mind that shallower wrecks tend to be shattered by the elements much faster. Accordingly, the better preserved shipwrecks are usually deeper. Many divers engaged in wreck diving also continue their education in deep diving.
Divers who want to get involved in more extensive penetrations usually complete special technical diver training. Two of the most popular technical wreck diving courses are the Advanced Wreck Diver course from TDI (the world's largest technical diver training organization) and the Wreck Penetration Diver course from NAUI.
Certification bodies To the
recognized certification bodies for leisure activities include:
ACUC: American Canadian Underwater Certifications.
ANDI: American Nitrox Divers International.
BSAC: The British Sub Aqua Club bases its training on a network of affiliated clubs.
CMAS: France-based Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques, an amateur volunteer organization.
GUE: Global Underwater Explorers focuses on technical and cave diving specialties.
IANTD: International Association of Nitrox Technical Divers.
IDEA: The International Association of Diving Instructors
ISI: The independent ones
Diving Instructors NAPI: The National Association of Professional Diving Instructors does not train directly, but issues certifications based on the recognition of previous learning experiences.
NAUI: The US-based National Association of Underwater Instructors is the oldest certification body for recreational diving.
PADI: The Professional Association of Diving Instructors, the largest diving certification agency, a commercial agency aimed at recreational divers who want to learn quickly.
PDIC: The Professional Diving Instructors Corporation.
SDI / TDI: The Scuba Divers International / Technical Divers International, a certification body specially developed for training with an emphasis on practical diving skills. SDI focuses on the recreational side of diving and TDI is the parent branch that specializes in technical diving.
SSI: Scuba Schools International, another large trading agency.
A general overview on this topic can be found in the relevant subsections under Diving - Getting Started and in the articles of the national and regional dive guide. A general listing of the articles of the national diving guides can be found under Scuba diving - Destinations. Some of these articles list regional dive guides in their destination sections.
Wreck diving is an attractive activity for divers for several reasons:
Marine life, wrecks are artificial reefs that are habitat for marine life and often attract both smaller residents and larger predators. Many famous shipwrecks are also marine parks, which helps preserve marine life.
Artifacts, many wrecks contain cargo or machinery that normally cannot be closely observed on floating work ships. For example, many wartime wrecks contain military equipment such as torpedoes or gas masks. Older wrecks may use older equipment, such as B. Telegraphs that are not normally seen on more modern ships.
History Although some wrecks were purposely sunk as dive sites, many wrecks have tragic or poignant histories. It is sometimes said that behind every great wreck dive there is a great shipwreck story.
Photography, wrecks provide a dramatic backdrop for underwater photographers. They also have the unique advantage that, unlike less predictable marine life, wrecks generally stand still for the photographer.
Secret, almost everyone has seen films like The Deep, Fool’s Gold and Into the Blue, in which lost treasure is on a shipwreck. Although very few wrecks hold any real treasure, almost all underwater wrecks still hold that seductive quality of secrets.
Wreck divers will usually carry other equipment in addition to their traditional diving equipment.
Rolls to connect to the entry point upon penetration.
At least one and up to three or four lights, depending on the degree of penetration.
Knife / Cutting Tool Many wreck divers are aware of their higher risk of entanglement and carry additional cutting tools, either a knife or scissors, a line cutter or a Z-blade.
Long hoses, in the event divers need to share air in a restricted environment, a conventional second stage on a dive regulator would be impractical.
Wreck divers also try to configure their equipment to minimize “danglies” or other pieces of equipment that could become entangled on the wreck, or monofilaments that may be lying around on the wreck. When entering a shipwreck, all equipment should be kept close to the diver's body to keep it streamlined. The clips used should be of a type that cannot be accidentally wedged onto a pipe (these are called suicide clips by cave divers), or should be weak enough to loosen if they get stuck.
In addition to the general diving precautions (see Diving - Stay Safe), wreck divers are exposed to a number of dangers in addition to those associated with traditional diving. Overhead environments can prevent direct access to the surface. There may be sharp edges on the wreck. Some wartime shipwrecks can contain explosive cargoes, and some wrecks can contain toxic materials or pollutants. Wrecks are also a draw for anglers as fish tend to accumulate on them. Fishing lines and nets can get caught on the wreck and pose a risk of entanglement for divers.
Most of the wrecks are slowly disintegrating. The structure will weaken as the material corrodes or rots, and eventually it will collapse. This is not a good time to be inside. The wrecks that are exposed to harsh sea conditions will generally deteriorate faster, but strangely enough, divers also tend to have less risk of collapse, as it usually happens during a storm when there are no divers nearby. The wrecks that are below the wave motion are the ones that are more likely to collapse without warning, possibly if an unfortunate diver encounters a critically weakened structure again and causes a collapse. This is very unusual, but it remains a possibility and is one of the reasons divers should receive adequate training before attempting a penetration - it helps if you can spot some of the signs of impending structural failure.
If visibility is poor, wrecks can be inadvertently penetrated. If you're lucky, you'll accidentally find out. If you are appropriately qualified, you can also find your way out. If you are diving in a location where you can, it is advisable to pull a surface marker buoy on a line or tie a line at some point outside the wreck before venturing too close to the darkness. Your guidance is the only guarantee of a way out.
Basic safety precautions
Any overhead diving is inherently riskier. Cave divers are taught how to minimize the risks as follows: The good divers live (or sometimes, the good divers always live).
T - stands for training. Don't go diving if you haven't exercised. Experience is not always an adequate substitute - you may have been lucky so far. Appropriate training will give you the skills that hopefully you will never need.
G - stands for guidelines. By setting a guideline, you can find out if your lights are going out or the silt is reducing visibility to zero. In some cases where the wreck is on its side or upside down, the route can just be confusing and very embarrassing to forget the way out even if you eventually find out.
D - stands for depth. Deeper water means more nitrogen anesthesia - divers need to be well versed in high-risk environments. Stay within your limits. Use helium-based gases for deeper dives if you can. They are more expensive and require additional training, but they improve the diving experience as you become more aware of what is going on around you and better remember the dive if you are not careful.
A - stands for air supply. Divers should always turn back before they have reached two-thirds of their original gas supply. A third goes in, a third goes out and a third goes to your buddy in case there is a gas leak. For full penetration, you should have a completely independent supply of safety gas with you.
L - stands for lights. When crossing the zone where surface light can enter, divers are trained to carry at least three battery operated lights. It's no fun being stuck in the middle of a shipwreck that is unable to see with diminishing air reserves, although if properly trained and using guideline figuring out shouldn't be a huge problem. The line is more important than the lights to safety, but the light will make you a lot happier at the time.
Many popular dive wrecks have suffered the effects of the destruction of souvenir hunters over the years. In the past, many areas have had a culture of removing artifacts from wrecks, but much more emphasis has been placed on preserving the historical nature of the wrecks. Many countries now impose harsh criminal penalties on divers who remove artifacts. Other wrecks have suffered from the heavy use of divers and the resulting accidental bumps over the years.
Although increasingly rare, some wrecks that attract divers still contain human remains. Divers are well advised to respect the final resting place of the people who perished when the ship sank.
Divers should endeavor to observe the following basic guidelines when dealing with wrecks:
Look, but don't touch, nature eventually grinds every shipwreck to rust - there's no need to rush the process. Plus, a scratch from a rusty metal wreck can be nasty.
Do not take souvenirs with you, everything you take with you is a trifle for future divers and often a trifle for marine animals. It is also illegal in some areas for both marine protected areas and wrecks.
Learn good buoyancy control to avoid accidentally damaging the site if it bumps into things. It will also help you avoid accidental damage to yourself or stirring up mud when entering the wreck.
Some diving organizations are promoting a diving variant of the Leave No Trace motto: "Take nothing but photos, leave nothing but bubbles."
Specific advice on local wreck legislation can be found in some articles from the national dive guides:
Diving on wrecks in South Africa
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