Can I use Domain Name Stack Social?

DNS server & DNS entries

IPv4 (216.58.212.131)
A series of numbers made up of four one- to three-digit series of numbers, separated by dots.

So 256 * 256 * 256 * 256 = 2 ^ 32 = 4,294,967,296 addresses can be used worldwide.

This standard was introduced on the Internet in 1981 and will be switched off again from 2022 and the standard will only be further developed for private purposes, as the number of addresses is no longer sufficient for today's time.

IPv6 (2a00: 1450: 4001: 801: 0: 0: 0: 2003)

A standardized procedure since 1998 and since then it has been further developed and mainly introduced because 340 sextillion (340 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000) IP addresses are possible and thus a standard for the future exists for the first time.

To be able to imagine the number, a quote from Wikipedia:

"This number is sufficient to provide at least 665,570,793,348,866,944 quadrillion (= 6.65 · 1017) IP addresses for every square millimeter of the earth's surface." (LINK)

RIPE issued the last fresh IPv4 addresses in Europe as early as November 2019.

The Domain Name System, or DNS for short

The main task of the Domain Name System, or DNS for short, is to assign the names to the IP addresses in the Internet so that the correct IP can be assigned to the domain.

The DNS is structured as a hierarchical directory. The TLDs (Top Level Domains) can be found on the top level. A committee, the so-called ICANN (Internet Corporation of Assigned Names and Numbers), is responsible for managing and defining the TLDs, including, for example, denic with the .de domains for Germany.

Domain names are dealt with on the second level, for example seo-kueche.de. This domain name can only exist once within a TLD!

Within the domain it is determined which services we offer, these are mostly standards such as www (wold wide web), ftp, pop, imap or smtp.

These three labels together make up the DNS name or URL

(Uniform Resource Locator) of a service on the Internet.

Entries in a DNS zone

The entries in a DNS zone are known as resource records.

Record type entry

A IPv4 address

AAAA IPv6 address

CNAME reference, redirect, or alias

MX responsible mail server for the zone (Mail Exchange)

NS responsible name server for the zone

SRV Server for a service in Windows AD

TXT returns a text

SOA contact person and parameters for the requested zone

(SOA: English for Start of Authority)

A records & AAAA records

A records

The A record (A stands for address) stands for the classic DNS entry that assigns a domain or subdomain to an IPv4 address.

E.g. google.de has 216.58.212.131 (IPv4) in the A record.

AAAA record

The AAAA record (quad-A,) basically stands for the same as the A record, only that the IP that is entered here is a little longer.

E.g. google.de has 2a00: 1450: 4001: 801: 0: 0: 0: 2003 (IPv6) in the AAAA record.

Whenever an AAAA record is set in addition to the A record, this has a higher priority than the simple A record, which is also called a dual stack.

Dual-Stack is an IPv6 / IPv4 implementation for name resolution, if the query for IPv6 is unsuccessful, IPv4 is used.

CNAME

The CNAME resource record is provided in the Domain Name System in order to assign a domain to another domain.

The CNAME stands for Canonical NAME.

Example:

A dynamic IP address is to be addressed, in this case the host name is entered as a CNAME by a DynDNS provider, for example, and can thus be reached via your own domain.

It should be noted that not only the HTTP protocol is affected, but also the SMTP, IMAP, POP or FTP protocols. These logs are all forwarded with the CNAME record.

MX records

The MX Resource Record (Mail Exchange) of a domain is an entry in the Domain Name System (DNS) and relates exclusively to the e-mail service.

Several mail servers can be created for the domain, which are controlled with priorities.

This has the advantage that if a mail server cannot be addressed, the mail server with the next higher priority is used.

Priority 10 is higher than priority 20.

NS records

A name server is specified for a subdomain with an NS record (Name Server Resource Record).

Example:

An NS entry is set for the subdomain test.domain.de, which points to the denic name server a.nic.de.

By the way: All over the world, websites and services with the country code .de are accessed more than 6 billion times a day.)

SVR records

The SRV record defines the availability of the IP-based services offered under the domain.

This is required, for example, with SIP / VoIP or XMPP (Office 365 or instant messaging).

With the SRV entry, the port and the protocol can be specified.

Example:

An SRV entry is set for _sip._tls.domain.de in order to use the SIP service with the TLS protocol.

This entry points e.g. to the host name 443 sipdir.online.xxxx.com.

SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) and VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol)

SIP is responsible for the "Session Initiation". This means that the connection request, i.e. the dialing, is done with this.

TXT records

TXT records contain freely selectable text.

On some systems, the content is used to encode administrative data. TXT records are also used to create an SPF record.

Example:

A TXT entry is set for the domain with the following content:

"V = spf1 mx a include: _spf.domain.systems ~ all"

v = spf1 - The version of SPF being used

mx a - The use of the hosts

spf.domain.systems - The host address

~ all - A SoftFail with linking all hosts

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